Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Effect of pollutants on spermatogenesis in animals

From: Does air pollution play a role in infertility?: a systematic review

Publication Species Number of subjects Air pollutant (s) studied Methodology Results
Ieradi et al., 1996 [45] Mice 82 Multiple pollutants from automobile traffic 3 groups of mice at 3 sites in Rome exposed to varying traffic density. Samplings of epididymal sperm from males. Increase in morphological abnormalities of spermatozoa in group exposed to highest levels of pollutants.
Watanabe and Oonuki, 1999 [47] Rats 18 Multiple pollutants from diesel exhaust 3 groups of rats exposed from birth to age of 3 months: - group 1: exposed to diesel exhaust - group 2: exposed to filtered diesel exhaust (no particles) - group 3: unexposed control group Increased levels of testosterone, estradiol and FSH in 2 exposed groups. Decreased level of LH in group 1. Decreased sperm production and testicular enzyme activity in 2 exposed groups.
Yoshida et al., 1999 [43] Mice 80 Multiple pollutants from diesel exhaust Male mice divided into 4 groups exposed for 6 months: - 3 groups with different concentrations of diesel exhaust particles (DEP): 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg DEP/m3–1 unexposed control group Altered morphology of seminiferous tubules, decreased mRNA in LH receptor and decreased daily production of spermatozoa in 3 exposed groups, in a non-statistically validated dose-dependent manner.
Tsukue et al., 2001 [51] Rats 344 Multiple pollutants from diesel exhaust Male mice divided into 4 groups exposed for 8 months: - 3 groups with increasing concentrations of diesel exhaust - 1 unexposed control group Decreased prostate and coagulating gland weights and increased levels of LH and testosterone in group exposed to lowest concentration. Increased weight of prostate, seminal vesicles, and coagulating glands and testosterone levels in group exposed to highest concentration.
Somers et al., 2002 [48] Mice 40 couples Multiple pollutants from industrial sources Mouse couples divided into 2 groups, exposed for 10 weeks: - 1 group in polluted industrial area - 1 unexposed comparison group in rural area Studied germline mutations (ESTR loci). Increase in rate of germline mutations among mouse families in the exposed group. No difference in maternal mutations.
Inyang et al., 2003 [50] Rats 40 Benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) Males divided into 4 groups: - 3 groups exposed to increasing doses of BaP for 10 days - 1 unexposed control group Decreased percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility in 2 groups exposed to highest BaP concentrations
Somers et al., 2004 [49] Mice 168 Multiple pollutants from industrial sources 4 groups of 21 outbred mouse couples: - 2 groups exposed in a polluted urban industrial area for 10 weeks: 1 group exposed to ambient air and 1 group exposed to air filtered with a HEPA filter (particle filter). - 2 groups exposed in a rural area for 10 weeks: 1 group exposed to ambient air and 1 group exposed to air filtered with a HEPA filter. Exposure site and HEPA filtration both had significant impacts on paternal inherited mutations in offspring (ANOVA: F = 7.22, p = 0.009 and F = 8.03, p = 0.006 respectively). No effect on maternal mutations. Offspring of mice exposed to ambient air in urban industrial area inherited ESTR mutations of paternal origin 1.9 to 2.1 times as frequently as offspring in other three treatment groups.
Watanabe, 2005 [44] Rats 156 Multiple pollutants from diesel exhaust Pregnant females divided into 5 exposure groups, from 7th day of gestation to delivery: - group 1 exposed to high total dose of unfiltered diesel engine exhaust (high total) - group 2 exposed to high dose of filtered exhaust without particles (high filtered) _ group 3 exposed to low total dose of diesel engine exhaust (low-total) - group 4 exposed to low dose of filtered exhaust (low-filtered) - group 5 exposed to clean air (control) Study of males born of these groups. Decreased number of Sertoli cells, number of germ cells and number of spermatozoa produced daily and increased follicle-stimulating hormone levels in all groups exposed to diesel exhaust
Jeng and Yu, 2008 [46] Rats 20, 5 in each group PAH Males divided into 4 groups: - 3 groups exposed to increasing doses of PAHs - 1 unexposed control group Lower daily sperm production and sperm mobility in exposed group. Increased LH levels and decreased testosterone levels in exposed group.
Yauk et al., 2008 [22] Mice 30 Multiple pollutants from industrial sources and automobile traffic Inbred males raised at polluted site and divided into 2 groups: - 1 group exposed to ambient air - 1 group exposed to air filtered with a particle filter (HEPA) Study of sperm DNA after 3, 10 or 16 weeks of exposure. Increased frequency of ESTR locus mutations (after 16 weeks), number of DNA strand breaks (after 3 and 10 weeks) and increased DNA methylation (after 10 and 16 weeks) in group exposed to ambient air compared to filtered air.