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Table 2 Cadmium, lead, and mercury association with homocysteine and c-reactive protein overall and stratified by dietary and serum micronutrients at the 75th percentile

From: Blood lead, cadmium and mercury in relation to homocysteine and C-reactive protein in women of reproductive age: a panel study

  hs-CRP (mg/L)a β (95% CI) tHcy (μmol/L)a β (95% CI)
  Unadjusted Adjusted b Unadjusted Adjustedb
Cadmiuma, μg /l −0.03 (−0.22, 0.15) −0.08 (−0.25, 0.08) 0.04 (0.001, 0.09) 0.03 (−0.01, 0.08)
Leada, μg/dl −0.05 (−0.31, 0.21) −0.05 (−0.28, 0.19) 0.10 (0.04, 0.16) 0.08 (0.01, 0.15)
Mercurya, μg /l −0.02 (−0.14, 0.11) 0.02 (−0.09, 0.12) −0.01 (−0.04, 0.01) −0.03 (−0.05, 0.003)
  Dietary Vitamin B6
  <1.84 mg/dayb ≥1.84 mg/dayb <1.84 mg/dayb ≥1.84 mg/dayb
Cadmiuma, μg /l −0.05 (−0.22, 0.12) 0.13 (−0.38, 0.12) 0.03 (−0.02, 0.08) 0.03 (−0.04, 0.09)
Leada, μg/dl −0.04 (−0.28, 0.20) −0.02 (−0.37. 0.32) 0.07 (0.003, 0.14) 0.06 (−0.04, 0.15)
Mercury a, μg /l 0.002 (−0.10, 0.11) 0.04 (−0.09, 0.19) −0.02 (−0.05, 0.004) −0.03 (−0.07, 0.01)
  Dietary Vitamin B12
  <4.47 μg /dayb ≥4.47 μg /dayb <4.47 μg /dayb ≥4.47 μg /dayb
Cadmiuma, μg /l −0.08 (−0.26, 0.09) −0.17 (−0.40, 0.05) 0.02 (−0.02, 0.07) 0.06 (−0.01, 0.12)
Leada, μg/dl −0.02 (−0.27, 0.22) −0.17 (−0.50, 0.16) 0.08 (0.01, 0.14) 0.05 (−0.03, 0.14)
Mercurya, μg /l 0.03 (−0.08, 0.13) −0.003 (−0.15, 0.15) −0.03 (−0.06, −0.005) −0.01 (−0.05, 0.03)
  Dietary Folate
  <456 μg /dayb ≥456 μg /dayb <456 μg /dayb ≥456 μg /dayb
Cadmiuma, μg /l −0.09 (−0.27, 0.09) −0.16 (−0.36, 0.04) 0.02 (−0.03, 0.07) 0.03 (−0.03, 0.10)
Leada, μg/dl −0.01 (−0.27, 0.24) 0.06 (−0.24, 0.36) 0.07 (0.0004, 0.14) 0.06 (−0.03, 0.15)
Mercurya, μg /l −0.001 (−0.11, 0.11) 0.07 (−0.05, 0.20) −0.03 (−0.06, 0.0001) −0.03 (−0.07, 0.01)
  Serum Folate
  <24.49 ng/mlb ≥24.49 ng/mlb <24.49 ng/mlb ≥24.49 ng/mlb
Cadmiuma, μg /l −0.05 (−0.23, 0.13) −0.24 (−.52, 0.04) 0.03 (−0.02, 0.08) 0.09 (0.02, 0.15)
Leada, μg/dl −0.07 (−0.32, 0.18) 0.01 (−0.39, 0.42) 0.07 (0.0001, 0.14) −0.002 (−0.10, 0.10)
Mercurya, μg /l 0.03 (−0.08, 0.13) 0.03 (−0.14, 0.21) −0.03 (−0.06, −0.005) −0.01 (−0.05, 0.03)
  1. Abbreviations: hs-CRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, tHcy total serum homocysteine
  2. aNatural log-transformed
  3. bAdjusted for age, race (black, white, other), BMI, parity, smoking, and day of menstrual cycle with inverse probability of exposure weights that included time-varying confounding: vitamins (B6, B12, folate), reproductive hormone concentrations, calorie and alcohol intake