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Table 3 Adjusteda odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of glioma and exposure to each of the 5 metals and welding fumes for a duration ≥1 year, a lag of 5 years and P ≥ 25%

From: Lifetime occupational exposure to metals and welding fumes, and risk of glioma: a 7-country population-based case–control study

Exposure Glioma cases Controls OR (95% CI)
n (%) n (%)
Cadmium
 Non-exposed 1741 (96.7) 5039 (97.7) 1.0 (Ref)
 Cumulative exposure 40 (2.2) 90 (1.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.6)
   ≤ 111.4 μg/m3 12 (0.7) 30 (0.6) 1.0 (0.5–1.9)
   > 111.4 to ≤343.8 μg/m3 19 (1.1) 31 (0.6) 1.6 (0.9–2.8)
   > 343.8 μg/m3 9 (0.5) 29 (0.6) 0.7 (0.3–1.5)
 Duration of exposure
  1–4 years 20 (1.1) 44 (0.9) 1.1 (0.6–1.8)
  5–9 years 10 (0.6) 19 (0.4) 1.4 (0.6–3.3)
   ≥ 10 years 10 (0.6) 27 (0.5) 0.8 (0.4–1.8)
 Restricted to males 31 (2.8) 56 (2.4) 1.1 (0.7–1.8)
 High grade cases 25 (2.0) 90 (1.7) 0.9 (0.6–1.5)
 Glioblastomas 18 (2.1) 90 (1.7) 0.9 (0.5–1.5)
 Self-respondents 38 (2.5) 89 (1.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.7)
Chromium
 Non-exposed 1508 (83.8) 4535 (87.9) 1.0 (Ref)
 Cumulative exposure 178 (9.9) 359 (7.0) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
   ≤ 445.5 μg/m3 61 (3.4) 121 (2.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
   > 445.5 to ≤3000 μg/m3 57 (3.2) 119 (2.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
   > 3000 μg/m3 60 (3.3) 119 (2.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
 Duration of exposure
  1–4 years 41 (2.3) 95 (1.8) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
  5–9 years 36 (2.0) 81 (1.6) 0.8 (0.5–1.2)
   ≥ 10 years 101 (5.6) 183 (3.5) 1.0 (0.8–1.4)
 Restricted to males 175 (15.7) 337 (14.6) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 High grade cases 124 (9.9) 359 (7.0) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Glioblastomas 83 (9.8) 359 (7.0) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)
 Self-respondents 150 (9.7) 358 (7.0) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
Iron
 Non-exposed 1546 (85.9) 4604 (89.2) 1.0 (Ref)
 Cumulative exposure 244 (13.6) 528 (10.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
   ≤ 70 mg/m3 64 (3.6) 181 (3.5) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)
   > 70 to ≤254.3 mg/m3 81 (4.5) 171 (3.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
   > 254.3 mg/m3 99 (5.5) 176 (3.4) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
 Duration of exposure
  1–4 years 52 (2.9) 139 (2.7) 0.8 (0.6–1.2)
  5–9 years 57 (3.2) 116 (2.2) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
   ≥ 10 years 135 (7.5) 273 (5.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Restricted to males 237 (21.2) 493 (21.4) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 High grade cases 181 (14.5) 528 (10.2) 1.0 (0.8–1.2)
 Glioblastomas 125 (14.7) 528 (10.2) 1.2 (0.4–3.2)
 Self-respondents 211 (13.7) 527 (10.3) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
Lead
 Non-exposed 1419 (78.8) 4296 (83.3) 1.0 (Ref)
 Cumulative exposure 159 (8.8) 387 (7.5) 0.8 (0.7–1.0)
   ≤ 128.8 μmol/l (in blood) 45 (2.5) 128 (2.5) 0.8 (0.6–1.2)
   > 128.8 to ≤413.2 μmol/l (in blood) 47 (2.6) 131 (2.5) 0.7 (0.5–1.0)
   > 413.2 μmol/l (in blood) 67 (3.7) 128 (2.5) 1.0 (0.7–1.3)
 Duration of exposure
  1–4 years 58 (3.2) 140 (2.7) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
  5–9 years 32 (1.8) 81 (1.6) 0.7 (0.4–1.1)
   ≥ 10 years 69 (3.8) 166 (3.2) 0.8 (0.6–1.1)
 Restricted to males 151 (13.5) 321 (13.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 High grade cases 121 (9.7) 387 (7.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Glioblastomas 85 (10.0) 387 (7.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Self-respondents 135 (8.7) 387 (7.5) 0.8 (0.7–1.0)
Nickel
 Non-exposed 1534 (85.2) 4585 (88.9) 1.0 (Ref)
 Cumulative exposure 215 (11.9) 444 (8.6) 0.9 (0.8–1.1)
   ≤ 317.2 μg/m3 55 (3.1) 149 (2.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.1)
   > 317.2 to ≤951.3 μg/m3 72 (4.0) 148 (2.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.3)
   > 951.3 μg/m3 88 (4.9) 147 (2.8) 1.1 (0.8–1.5)
 Duration of exposure
  1–4 years 46 (2.6) 128 (2.5) 0.8 (0.5–1.1)
  5–9 years 51 (2.8) 104 (2.0) 0.9 (0.6–1.3)
   ≥ 10 years 118 (6.6) 212 (4.1) 1.0 (0.8–1.3)
 Restricted to males 209 (18.7) 410 (17.8) 0.9 (0.8–1.2)
 High grade cases 155 (12.4) 444 (8.6) 1.0 (0.8–1.2)
 Glioblastomas 107 (12.6) 444 (8.6) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Self-respondents 184 (11.9) 443 (8.6) 0.9 (0.8–1.1)
Welding fumes
 Non-exposed 1546 (85.9) 4606 (89.3) 1.0 (Ref)
 Cumulative exposure 182 (10.1) 388 (7.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
   ≤ 180 mg/m3 63 (3.5) 136 (2.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.2)
   > 180 to ≤684 mg/m3 54 (3.0) 123 (2.4) 0.8 (0.6–1.2)
   > 684 mg/m3 65 (3.6) 129 (2.5) 1.0 (0.7–1.4)
 Duration of exposure
  1–4 years 44 (2.4) 110 (2.1) 0.8 (0.6–1.2)
  5–9 years 39 (2.2) 77 (1.5) 0.9 (0.6–1.4)
   ≥ 10 years 99 (5.5) 201 (3.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Restricted to males 178 (15.9) 375 (16.2) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
 High grade cases 131 (10.5) 388 (7.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Glioblastomas 95 (11.2) 388 (7.5) 0.9 (0.7–1.2)
 Self-respondents 157 (10.2) 388 (7.6) 0.9 (0.7–1.1)
  1. aAdjusted for age, educational level, occupational prestige, atopy, and respondent status