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Table 1 Age-adjusted characteristics of n = 112,639 NHSII women over follow-up from 1989 to 2013 by cumulative average radon quintile

From: Environmental radon exposure and breast cancer risk in the Nurses’ Health Study II

  Overall Radon quintile 1 (<27.0 Bq/m3) Radon quintile 2 (≥27.0–37.7 Bq/m3) Radon quintile 3 (≥37.7–50.1 Bq/m3) Radon quintile 4 (≥50.1–74.9 Bq/m3) Radon quintile 5 (≥74.9 Bq/m3)
Person-years (n) 2,502,695 496,494 503,957 503,121 499,349 499,773
Cumulative average radon (Bq/m3) (mean ± SD) 54.7 ± 38.5 19.2 ± 3.9 32.2 ± 3.1 43.3 ± 3.5 61.5 ± 6.6 117.3 ± 38.5
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 45.4 ± 8.3 45.8 ± 8.2 45.3 ± 8.3 45.2 ± 8.3 45.4 ± 8.2 45.4 ± 8.3
White (%) 96 91 94 96 98 98
Family history of breast cancer (%) 11 11 11 11 11 10
Personal history of biopsy-confirmed benign breast disease (BBD) (%) 17 17 17 18 17 17
Menopausal status and hormone use (%)
 Premenopausal 67 67 67 68 67 67
 Never users 5 4 5 5 5 5
 Past users 11 11 11 11 11 11
 Current users 8 9 8 7 7 8
 Missing 9 10 10 9 9 9
Age at menarche (years) (mean ± SD) 12.4 ± 1.4 12.4 ± 1.5 12.4 ± 1.5 12.4 ± 1.4 12.4 ± 1.4 12.4 ± 1.4
Parity and age at first birth (%)
 Nulliparous 17 21 18 17 16 14
 1–2 children <25 14 13 13 13 15 16
 1–2 children ≥25–30 19 18 19 19 20 21
 1–2 children ≥30 13 15 13 13 12 11
 3+ children <25 11 8 10 12 12 14
 3+ children ≥25–30 10 8 9 11 11 11
 3+ children ≥30 2 2 3 3 2 2
 Missing 13 15 14 13 12 11
Breastfeeding (%)
 Never 13 9 13 14 14 14
 Ever 55 53 54 55 55 58
 Missing 11 12 12 11 11 11
Oral contraceptive (OC) use (%)
 Never 12 10 12 13 13 11
 Past 73 73 72 71 73 76
 Current 7 7 7 6 6 6
 Missing 9 10 10 9 8 7
Screening mammogram (%)
 No mammogram 22 22 22 22 22 22
 Screening mammogram 52 51 51 53 52 53
 Missing 26 28 27 26 26 25
Height (in) (mean ± SD) 64.9 ± 2.6 64.8 ± 2.7 64.8 ± 2.6 64.9 ± 2.6 64.8 ± 2.6 64.9 ± 2.6
Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) at age 18 (mean ± SD) 21.2 ± 3.2 21.0 ± 3.0 21.2 ± 3.1 21.3 ± 3.2 21.3 ± 3.2 21.4 ± 3.2
Current BMI (kg/m2) (mean ± SD) 25.5 ± 4.9 25.1 ± 4.8 25.4 ± 4.9 25.5 ± 4.9 25.6 ± 4.9 25.8 ± 5.0
Smoking status (%)
 Never 65 66 64 63 63 68
 Past 25 25 26 26 25 22
 Current 9 8 9 9 10 9
Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) (mean ± SD) 53.5 ± 9.8 55.3 ± 9.7 54.0 ± 9.7 53.4 ± 9.8 52.8 ± 9.7 52.0 ± 9.8
Cumulative average adult alcohol consumption (g/day) (mean ± SD) 3.2 ± 5.2 3.6 ± 5.9 3.3 ± 5.2 3.2 ± 5.1 3.0 ± 4.9 2.7 ± 4.8
Alcohol consumption at age 15 (g/day) (mean ± SD) 1.1 ± 3.6 1.1 ± 3.7 1.1 ± 3.6 1.2 ± 3.9 1.0 ± 3.5 0.9 ± 3.4
Alcohol consumption at age 18 (g/day) (mean ± SD) 5.1 ± 8.2 4.6 ± 7.8 5.0 ± 8.0 5.6 ± 8.5 5.4 ± 8.4 4.9 ± 8.0
Physical activity (MET hours/week) (mean ± SD) 19.8 ± 27.9 20.1 ± 28.4 19.8 ± 28.4 20.2 ± 28.7 19.7 ± 27.5 19.1 ± 26.4
Census tract median home value ($10,000) (mean ± SD) 16.3 ± 12.1 22.2 ± 16.2 18.2 ± 13.0 15.9 ± 11.7 13.3 ± 8.5 12.0 ± 5.3
Census tract median income ($) (mean ± SD) 63,669 ± 23,805 67,010 ± 26,620 66,984 ± 25,438 65,599 ± 24,124 60,849 ± 22,655 57,871 ± 17,755
Individual-level income >$100,000 (%) 21 25 23 22 19 18
Married (%) 56 52 55 56 57 60
Living alone (%) 7 8 7 7 7 6
Region of residence (%)       
 Northeast 33 9 27 43 54 32
 Midwest 32 1 30 41 30 59
 West 15 51 15 5 3 2
 South 19 38 29 11 12 7
Cumulative average PM2.5 (10 μg/m3) (mean ± SD) 1.5 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.3
Cumulative average PM2.5–10 (10 μg/m3) (mean ± SD) 1.1 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.4
Population density (per mi2) (mean ± SD) 3779 ± 10,885 3872 ± 5032 4432 ± 8188 6546 ± 20,144 2486 ± 8479 1533 ± 2252
Urbanicity (%)
 Urban 84 88 88 88 82 71
 Urban Cluster 9 7 6 7 10 16
 Small Town Rural 7 5 5 5 8 13
Percent of county occupied housing units: built after 1990 (mean ± SD) 23.1 ± 12.3 26.3 ± 13.4 23.4 ± 14.0 21.0 ± 11.7 20.6 ± 10.5 24.3 ± 10.3
Percent of county occupied housing units: single-unit detached/attached (mean ± SD) 71.4 ± 11.4 66.8 ± 8.5 70.6 ± 11.0 70.4 ± 16.8 73.3 ± 8.9 76.1 ± 6.8
Ever-moved (%) 79 83 81 79 75 76