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Table 1 Characteristics of children and concentrations of metals in urine

From: The physiological determinants of low-level urine cadmium: an assessment in a cross-sectional study among schoolchildren

  Girls Boys P-value
Na 111 138  
Age (years) 5.83 (5.5–6.0) 5.75 (5.42–5.92) 0.07
BMI (kg/m2) 15.4 (14.6–17.0) 15.8 (15.1–17.0) 0.49
U-Creat (g/L) 0.64 (0.43–0.91) 0.73 (0.57–0.90) 0.02
U-SG 1.021 (1.016–1.025) 1.023 (1.020–1.025) 0.01
U-Cd
 μg/L 0.22 (0.16–0.31) 0.24 (0.18–0.30) 0.12
 μg/g creatinine 0.35 (0.27–0.47) 0.33 (0.26–0.45) 0.43
 μg/L adjusted for SG 0.23 (0.19–0.31) 0.22 (0.17–0.29) 0.49
U-Zn
 μg/L 330 (178–475) 347 (222–481) 0.09
 μg/g creatinine 502 (348–686) 470 (350–657) 0.96
 μg/L adjusted for SG 339 (229–472) 317 (235–427) 0.87
U-Pba
 μg/L 0.92 (0.54–1.49) 1.08 (0.72–1.66) 0.03
 μg/g creatinine 1.42 (1.04–2.00) 1.60 (1.11–2.18) 0.29
 μg/L adjusted for SG 0.95 (0.65–1.51) 1.03 (0.78–1.57) 0.28
  1. aGirls, n = 110; boys, n = 138. Values are median (interquartile range)