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Table 4 Determinants of U-Cd in models based on U-Creat adjustment

From: The physiological determinants of low-level urine cadmium: an assessment in a cross-sectional study among schoolchildren

  U-Cd (μg/g creatinine) U-Cd (μg/g creatinine) with U-Creat as predictor U-Cd (μg/l) with U-Creat as predictor
Model Ind. variable Regression coefficient (95% IC) P r 2 Ind. variable Regression coefficient (95% I) P r 2 Ind. variable Regression coefficient (95% I) P r 2
With U-A1M U-Zn 0.21 (0.12 to 0.31) <0.001 0.12 U-Zn 0.19 (0.10 to 0.28) <0.001 0.23 U-Creat 0.45 (0.30 to 0.60) <0.001 0.51
(n = 249) U-A1M 0.10 (0.04 to 0.17) 0.002   U-Creat −0.28 (−0.37 to −0.18) <0.001   U-Zn 0.18 (0.09 to 0.27) <0.001  
  Age 0.07 (0.01 to 0.13) 0.03   Age 0.07 (0.02 to 0.13) 0.01   Age 0.08 (0.02 to 0.13) 0.01  
      U-A1M 0.07 (0.005 to 0.13) 0.040   U-A1M 0.07 (0.001 to 0.13) 0.046  
      U-Alb −0.03 (−0.07 to 0.003) 0.07   U-Alb −0.03 (−0.07 to 0.005) 0.09  
          U-Pb 0.06 (−0.02 to 0.13) 0.15  
With U-RBP U-Zn 0.21 (0.12 to 0.31) <0.001 0.10 U-Zn 0.18 (0.09 to 0.27) <0.001 0.22 U-Creat 0.44 (0.28 to 0.60) <0.001 0.50
(n = 249) Age 0.06 (−0.002 to 0.12) 0.06   U-Creat −0.29 (−0.39 to −0.20) <0.001   U-Zn 0.17 (0.08 to 0.26) <0.001  
  U-RBP 0.08 (−0.02 to 0.17) 0.12   U-Alb −0.04 (−0.08 to −0.01) 0.02   Age 0.07 (0.02 to 0.13) 0.01  
      Age 0.07 (0.01 to 0.13) 0.02   U-Alb −0.04 (−0.08 to −0.004) 0.03  
      U-RBP 0.08 (−0.01 to 0.17) 0.08   U-RBP 0.08 (−0.01 to 0.17) 0.09  
          U-Pb 0.06 (−0.01 to 0.17) 0.13  
With U-β2-m U-Zn 0.20 (0.10 to 0.30) <0.001 0.11 U-Zn 0.19 (0.09 to 0.28) <0.001 0.21 U-Creat 0.56 (0.43 to 0.64) <0.001 0.51
(n = 238) Age 0.06 (0.007 to 0.13) 0.03   U-Creat −0.29 (−0.39 to −0.19) <0.001   U-Zn 0.18 (0.09 to 0.27) <0.001  
  U-β2m 0.06 (−0.01 to 0.12) 0.10   Age 0.07 (0.01 to 0.13) 0.02   Age 0.07 (0.01 to 0.13) 0.02  
  U-Pb 0.06 (−0.02 to 0.15) 0.14   U-Alb −0.04 (−0.08 to −0.0001) 0.049   U-Alb −0.04 (−0.07 to 0.001) 0.049  
With U-CC16 U-Zn 0.18 (0.07 to 0.29) 0.002 0.10 U-Creat −0.31 (−0.44 to −0.20) <0.001 0.20 U-Creat 0.45 (0.29 to 0.61) <0.001 0.44
(n = 182) U-CC16 0.05 (0.004 to 0.10) 0.02   U-Zn 0.17 (0.06 to 0.27) <0.001   U-Zn 0.17 (0.06 to 0.27) 0.002  
  U-Pb 0.07 (−0.02 to 0.16) 0.10   U-Pb 0.06 (−0.02 to 0.15) 0.13   U-Pb 0.06 (−0.02 to 0.14) 0.13  
  1. All parameters except age were log transformed. Independent variables measured in urine were expressed in the same units as U-Cd. For models built with U-Creat in μg/g creatinine without or with U-Creat among predictors, the highest variance inflation factors (VIF) were 1.064 (U-Creat) in the model with U-A1M, 1.058 (U-Alb) in the model with U-RBP, 1.028 (U-Creat) in the model with U-β2-m and 1.005 (U-Zn and U-Creat) in the model with U-CC16. For the models built with U-Cd in μg/l with U-Creat among predictors, the highest VIF values were 2.47 (U-Creat) in the model with U-A1M, 2.76 (U-Creat) in the model with U-RBP, 2.26 (U-Creat) in the model with U-β2-m and 2.10 (U-Creat) in the model with U-CC16