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Table 1 Basic characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis

From: Lung cancer mortality of residents living near petrochemical industrial complexes: a meta-analysis

ID Comparison Study period The started operation year of PICs Adjusted confounders Country Definition of petroleum area and reference area Study group
(Number of subject)
Outcome selection Industrial activity/
Substantial chemicals
Study design Reference
A Asian males,
exposure group vs. reference group
1982–1991 1968
(First–fourth naphtha cracking plants)b
Age Taiwan
(32 counties)
Petroleum area: 16 counties with 2% or more of the population employed in petrochemical industrial complexes (PICs)
Reference area: 16 matched counties with less than 2% of the population employed in PICs
Exposure group:
Residents in 16 petroleum counties (N = 977,853)
Reference group:
Residents in 16 reference counties (N = 870,758)
Death registered in Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health;
ICD-9 code = 162
Petrochemical manufacturing/
Vinyl chloride monomer, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)
Cohort study [18]
B Asian females,
exposure group vs. reference group
1982–1991 1968
(First–fourth naphtha cracking plants)b
Age Taiwan
(32 counties)
C White males, Industrial Corridor vs. Louisiana 1990–1999 < 1970 Age United States (Louisiana) Petroleum area:
Industrial Corridor: the industrial area of the lower Mississippi River of South Louisiana (the highest density of petrochemical facilities in the United States)
Reference area:
Louisiana
Exposure group:
White male residents in Industrial Corridor (N = 186,727)a
Reference group:
White male residents in Louisiana (N = 1,385,055)a
Death data from the University of Pittsburgh’s Mortality and Population Data System;
ICD-9 code = 162
Producers of industrial and agricultural organic chemicals, plastics, synthetics, industrial inorganic chemicals/
Ammonia, methanol, phosphoric acid, nitrate compounds, formaldehyde, and PAH
Cohort study [19]
D White females, Industrial Corridor vs. Louisiana 1990–1999 < 1970 Age United States (Louisiana) Exposure group:
White female residents in Industrial Corridor (N = 194,376)a
Reference group:
White female residents in Louisiana (N = 1,454,083)a
E Non-white males,
Industrial Corridor vs. Louisiana
1990–1999 < 1970 Age United States (Louisiana) Exposure group:
Non-white male residents in Industrial Corridor (N = 98,917)a
Reference group:
Non-white male residents in Louisiana (N = 646,311)a
F Non-white females,
Industrial Corridor vs. Louisiana
1990–1999 < 1970 Age United States (Louisiana) Exposure group:
Non-white female residents in Industrial Corridor (N = 112,079)a
Reference group:
Non-white female residents in Louisiana (N = 734,504)a
G White males,
Residents vs. Commuters
1960–2002 1960
(Gela plant)c
Age, calendar period, residence category or job category, and time since first employment Italy (Sicily) Petroleum area:
A large petrochemical plant built in the vicinity of the town of Gela, Sicily in 1960
Males workers employed in the Gela petrochemical plant in 1960–1993
Exposure group:
Residents: workers born in Gela (N = 1684) and in Sicilian municipalities with a probability of commuting defined by the gravity model as < 0.5 g (N = 709)
Reference group:
Commuters: workers born in Sicilian municipalities, excluding Gela with a probability of commuting
defined by the gravity model as > = 0.5 g (N = 3234)
Data from municipalities’ registry office;
ICD-9 code = 162
Oil refinery, thermoelectric power plants, producers of organic and inorganic chemicals/
Ethylene, acrylonitrile, sulfuric acid, ammonia, chlorine urea
Cohort study [21]
H Whites (both genders),
exposure group vs. reference group
1996–1997 1961
(Brindisi petrochemical plant)d
Age, sex, smoking, and education Italy
(Brindisi)
Petroleum area:
The petrochemical plant located in Brindisi
Exposure group:
Residents in Brindisi and three neighboring municipalities(Carovigno, Torchiarolo, San Pietro Vernotico) who died from lung cancer (N = 95)
Reference group:
Random sample of residents in the same area who died from any other disease (N = 170)
Death register in Local Health Authority of Brindisi;
ICD-9 code = 162
Petrochemical plant/
N.R.
Case- control study [22]
I White males,
Teesside (zone A,B,C) vs. Sunderland (zone S)
1981–1991 1965
(Teesside refinery)f
5-year age group United Kingdom
(Teesside)
Petroleum area:
Teesside (one of western Europe’s largest steel and petrochemical complexes)
Exposure group:
Residents in 19 housing estates in Teesside (zones A,B,C) (N = 77,330)
Reference group:
Residents in 8 housing estates in Sunderland (zone S) (N = 43,485)
Death data from the former Northern Regional Health
Authority
Petrochemical complex, steel complex, coking, and chemical operations/
N.R.
Cohort study [7]
J White females,
Teesside (zone A,B,C) vs. Sunderland (zone S)
1981–1991 1965
(Teesside refinery)f
5-year age group United Kingdom
(Teesside)
K White males,
residents living within 10 km circle vs. in Rome
1987–1993 1965
(Rome refinery plant)e
5-year age group, four levels of socioeconomic index Italy
(Rome)
Petroleum area:
Circle of 10 km radius around the petrochemical refinery which began operation in the early 1960s in the area of Malagrotta, a suburb of Rome
Exposure group:
Males living within a 10 km radius of the plants (N = 165,074)
Reference group: Males in 6108 census tracts in Rome (N = N.R.)
Data from the geographical information mortality system;
ICD-9 code = 162
Waste disposal, waste incinerators, petrochemical refinery/ Particulates, hydrogen chloride, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, PAH, chlorinated benzene, chlorinated phenols, and phthalates Cohort study [8]
L White females,
residents living within 10 km circle vs. in Rome
1987–1993 1965
(Rome refinery plant)e
5-year age group, four levels of socioeconomic index Italy
(Rome)
Exposure group:
Females living within a 10 km radius of the plants (N = 176,315)
Reference group: Females in 6108 census tracts in Rom (N = N.R.)
M White (both genders)
within 3 km vs. England and Wales
1981–1991 1963
(Baglan Bay petrochemical plant)
Age, sex, index of deprivation, and region United Kingdom
(West Glamorgan)
Petroleum area:
Circle of 3 km radius centered on the petrochemical plant
Exposure group:
Residents living within circle of 3 km radius centered on the petrochemical plant, and death before 74 years old (N = 26,206)
Reference group:
Residents in England and Wales, and death before 74 years old (N = N.R.)
Death data from the Small Area Health Statistics Unit and 1981 census;
ICD-9 code = 162
Baglan Bay Chemicals/ Alcohols, styrene, olefins, benzene, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride Cohort study [23]
  1. N number of subject, N.R. not reported, ICD International Classification of Diseases
  2. aSource of data: 1990 Census of Population: General Population Characteristics, Louisiana. https://www2.census.gov/library/publications/decennial/1990/cp-1/cp-1-20.pdf (Accessed 10 Mar 2017)
  3. bSource of data: The industrial heritage in Taiwan (In Chinese), National Science and Technology Museum, Taiwan, http://iht.nstm.gov.tw/form/index-1.asp?m=2&m1=3&m2=76&gp=21&id=7 (Accessed 13 Apr 2017)
  4. cSource of data: Pasetto R, Comba P, Pirastu R. Lung cancer mortality in a cohort of workers in a petrochemical plant: occupational or residential risk? Int J Occup Environ Health. 2008;14(2):124–8
  5. dSource of data: Petrolchimico di Brindisi (1969–1972) (In Italian), Tatiana Schirinzi, http://www.nove.firenze.it/petrolchimico-brindisi/ (Accessed 14 Apr 2017)
  6. eSource of data: Rome Refinery, A Barrel Full, http://abarrelfull.wikidot.com/rome-refinery (Accessed 13 Apr 2017)
  7. f Source of data: Teesside Refinery, https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Teesside%20Refinery (Accessed 19 Jul 2017)
  8. gSoure of data: Signorino G, Pasetto R, Gatto E, Mucciardi M, La Rocca M, Mudu P. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area. Int J Health Geogr 2011,10:11