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Table 2 Pooled estimates of relative risks of lung cancer mortality for residents living nearby petrochemical industrial complexes, by different characteristics

From: Lung cancer mortality of residents living near petrochemical industrial complexes: a meta-analysis

Characteristics N Pooled RR (95%CI) I 2 (%) p-value
Overall 13 1.03 (0.98–1.09) 25.3 0.236
 Sex
  Males 7 1.02 (0.93–1.11) 44.9 0.728
  Females 5 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 0 0.137
 Location
  Asia 2 1.09 (0.93–1.27) 13.6 0.311
  United States 4 0.95 (0.86–1.05) 0 0.302
  European Union 7 1.07 (0.98–1.16) 44.6 0.119
 Ethnicity
  Asian 2 1.09 (0.93–1.27) 13.6 0.311
  White 9 1.04 (0.97–1.12) 41.7 0.280
  Non-white 2 0.97 (0.82–1.13) 0 0.666
 PM10
  PM10 > 150 μg/m3 4 1.12 (0.97–1.29) 54.8 0.117
  PM10 ≤ 150 μg/m3 9 1.01 (0.96–1.06) 0 0.724
 Latency period     
  > 20 years 9 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 25.3 0.990
  ≤ 20 years 4 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 35.9 0.056
 bona fide observation
  ≥ 10 years 6 1.01 (0.87–1.16) 39.9 0.929
  < 10 years 7 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 6.8 0.115
  1. N numbers of subjects included, RR relative risks