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Table 1 Risk estimates or dose-response coefficients for short and long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 and O3

From: Climate change impacts on human health over Europe through its effect on air quality

Exposure and Reference Outcome Risk estimate 95% Confidence interval Metric
Short term PM2.5 [7] All cause 1.2% per 10 μg m−3 0.45, 2.0% Daily mean
Long term PM2.5 [9] All cause 0.3% per 1 μg m−3 0.1, 0.5% Annual mean
Long term PM2.5 [7] All cause 6.2% per 10 μg m−3 4.0, 8.3% Annual mean
Short term O3 [8] All cause 0.18% (EU) per 10 μg m−3 0.07, 0.30% (EU) Daily mean O3
0.31% (USA) per 10 μg m−3 0.09, 0.52% (USA)
Short term O3 [7, 3] All cause 0.29% per 10 μg m−3 0.14, 0.43% Daily maximum 8-h O3
0.34% per 10 μg m −3 0.12, 0.56%
Long-term O3 [7] –based on [10] Respiratory mortality 1.4% per 10 μg m−3 0.5, 2.4% Daily maximum 8-h O3 [April-Sept]