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Table 4 Main results showing effect estimates for road traffic noise with 95% CIs

From: Road traffic noise and children’s inattention

  Pregnancy sample Postnatal sample
Pregnancy (n = 1934) Noise at 8 years (n = 1384) 5-year average (3–8 y; n = 1384)
Analysis N Coeff. (95% CI) N Coeff. (95% CI) Coeff. (95% CI)
Crudea: 1934 .0033 (−.0019, .0084) 1384 .0088 (.0019, .0157) .0100 (.0029, .0171)
Minimal adjustment setb: 1934 .0043 (−.0011, .0097) 1384 .0084 (.0013, .0154) .0094 (.0021, .0168)
Mainc: 1934 .0042 (−.0013, .0096) 1384 .0083 (.0012, .0154) .0090 (.0016, .0164)
Stratified by maternal education:
 High school    181 −.0079 (−.0267,.0109) −.0091 (−.0289,.0107)
 Up to 4 years of university/college    627 .0064 (−.0035, .0163) .0059 (−.0048, .0166)
 5 or more years of university/college    576 .0179 (.0061, .0297). .0218 (.0100, .0337)
Stratified by household income:
  < 600,000 NOK 605 .0057 (−.0039, .0153)    
 600,000–900,000 NOK 899 .0017 (−.0063, .0097)    
  > = 900,000 NOK 430 .0087 (−.0041, .0215)    
With rail traffic noise (n = 1384/1934): 1934 .0040 (−.0015, .0096) 1384 .0083 (.0011, .0154) .0085 (.0010, .0159)
Without referred (n = 1352/1889): 1889 .0046 (−.0007, .0098) 1352 .0071 (.0004, .0137) .0082 (.0012, .0151)
Without parents living apart (n = 1208/1722):    1208 .0074 (−.0004, .0152) .0075 (−.0007, .0165)
Without premature (n = 1322/1851): 1851 .0052 (−.0005, .0109) 1322 .0099 (.0027, .0170) .0112 (.0037, .0186)
Without low birth wgt (n = 1335/1880): 1880 .0049 (−.0007, .0105) 1335 .0081 (.0009, .0153) .0093 (.0019, .0168)
Without airpoll at 8 years (n = 401):    401 .0091 (−.0042, .0224)  
With NO2 at 8 years (n = 401):    401 .0077 (−.0061, .0215)  
With NOX at 8 years (n = 401):    401 .0079 (−.0057, .0214)  
With PM2.5 at 8 years (n = 401):    401 .0093 (−.0044, .0229)  
Without 5-y average air pollution (n = 369):    369   .0054 (−.0084, .0191)
With NO2, 5-y average (n = 369):    369   .0042 (−.0096, .0181)
With NOX, 5-y average (n = 369):    369   .0040 (−.0097, .0176)
With PM2.5, 5-y average (n = 369):    369   .0041 (−.0097, .0180)
Without air poll, pregnancy (n = 1314/1931): 1931 .0042 (−.0013, .0097) 1314 .0081 (.0010, .0152) .0091 (.0016, .0165)
With NO2, pregnancy (n = 1314/1931): 1931 .0039 (−.0020, .0098) 1314 .0074 (.0001, .0147) .0083 (.0006, .0160)
With NOX, pregnancy (n = 1314/1931): 1931 .0047 (−.0012, .0107) 1314 .0075 (.0003, .0147) .0084 (.0007, .0160)
With PM2.5, pregnancy (n = 1314/1931): 1931 .0035 (−.0023, .0093) 1314 .0078 (.0005, .0150) .0088 (.0011, .0164)
  1. aCovariates included in crude model: age and gender
  2. bCovarites incuded in the minimal adjustment set model: age, gender, income and urbanity
  3. cCovariates included in main model: road traffic noise, age, gender, household income, maternal education, urbanity, ethnicity, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight (>=/<2500 g) and prematurity (>=/<259 days)