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Table 1 Estimates of economic costs associated with lead and other neurotoxicant exposure

From: Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures: application of toxicological information in health economic estimation

Risk factor Adverse consequences Context Economic cost ($billions) % GDP % of Global GDP
Lead exposure Cognitive deficits LMICs [53] 1040 [775.5–1237] 5.20 [3.9–6.2] 1.68 [1.25–1.99]
U.S. [57] 54.0 [47.5–64.3] 0.37 [0.33–0.44] 0.09 [0.08–0.1]
EU [82] 60.6 [53.7–72.2] 0.36 [0.32–0.43] 0.1 [0.09–0.12]
Total (sum) 1154 [876.7–1373.5] 2.47 [1.88–2.94] 1.83 [1.39–2.18]
Intellectual disability only World (WHO) [29] 16 [10–40] <0.01 <0.01
World (GDB) [3] 246 [154–615] 0.4 [0.24–1] 0.4 [0.24–1]
Neurotoxicity total World (WHO) [29] 5 [3.15–12.6] <0.01 <0.01
World (GBD) [3] 283 [177–708] 0.45 [0.27–1.1] 0.45 [0.27–1.1]
Methylmercury Cognitive deficits U.S. [58] 4·8 [4.2–5.7] 0.03 [0.026–0.04] <0.01
EU [56] 10.8 [9,6–11.2] 0.06 [0.053–0.062] <0.01
Sum 15.6 [13.8–16.9] 0.05 [0.044–0.54] <0.01
Organophosphate pesticides Cognitive deficits U.S. [39] 44.7 [14.6–59.5] 0.30 [0.1–0.4] 0.07 [0.2–0.09]
EU [69] 194 [62–259] 1.14 [0.37–1.52] 0.31 [0.09–0.4]
Sum 248.7 [76.6–318.5] 0.8 [0.25–1.02] 0.38 [0.11–0.49]
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers Cognitive deficits U.S. [39] 266 [133–367] 1.8 [0.9–2.5] 0.4 [0.2–0.6]
EU [69] 12·6 [2.08–29.4] 0.07 [0.011–0.16] 0.02 [0.003–0.05]
Sum 278.6 [135.08–396.4] 0.9 [0.43–1.28] 0.42 [0.23–0.65]