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Table 3 Estimates of economic costs associated with EDC exposures in the EU [81] and the US [39]

From: Calculation of the disease burden associated with environmental chemical exposures: application of toxicological information in health economic estimation

EDC Adverse consequences Context Economic costs ($millions) % GDP (2010) % of Global GDP
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) Testicular cancer US 81.5 [24.8–109.3] <0.01 <0.01
EU 1100 [416–1100] <0.01 <0.01
Cryptorchidism US 35.7 [NA - NA] <0.01 <0.01
EU 172.6 [155.5–172.6] <0.01 <0.01
Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDE) Childhood obesity US 29.6 [NA - 57.3] <0.01 <0.01
EU 32.7 [NA - 114.8] <0.01 <0.01
Adult diabetes US 1800 [NA – 13,500] <0.01 [NA - 0.08] <0.01
EU 1100 [NA – 22,065] <0.01 [NA - 0.13] <0.01
Fibroids US 259 [NA - NA] <0.01 <0.01
EU 216.8 [NA - NA] <0.01 <0.01
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate Adult obesity US 1700 [NA - NA] 0.011 <0.01
EU 20,800 [NA - NA] 0.12 <0.01
Adult diabetes US 91.4 [NA - NA] <0.01 <0.01
EU 807.2 [NA - NA] <0.01 <0.01
Endometriosis US 47,000 [NA - NA] 0.32 <0.01
EU 1700 [NA - NA] 0.01 <0.01
Bisphenol A Childhood obesity US 2400 [NA - NA] 0.02 <0.01
EU 2000 [NA - NA] 0.02 <0.01
Benzyphtalates & butylphalates Male infertility resulting in Increasesed ART US 2500 [NA - NA] 0.02 <0.01
EU 6300 [NA - NA] 0.04 0.01
Phtalates Low testoterone and increased early mortality US 8800 [NA - NA] 0.06 0.012
EU 10,600 [NA - NA] 0.05 0.012
Multiple exposures Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) US 698 [568–1950] <0.01 [<0.01–0.011] <0.01
EU 3056 [1600–3800] 0.014 [<0.01–0.017] <0.01
Autism US 1984 [803–4100] 0.014 [<0.01–0.024] <0.01
EU 352 [105–530] <0.01 <0.01
All compounds included   US 340,000 [668–612,000] 2.33 [<0.01–3.53] 0.54 [<0.01 0.96]
  EU 217,000 [110,049–359,239] 1.2 [0.75–2.12] 0.34 [0.17–0.57]
  Sum 557,000 [110,707–971,239] 1.8 [0.3–3.07] 0.88 [0.17–1.54]
  1. NA: Not available
  2. Base case estimates are presented along with ranges [Low end and High end estimates] from sensitivity analyses, when available
  3. All estimates are given in $2010, for EU a 1.33 rate change € /$ is used, and for estimates prior to 2010, inflated adjustments are made