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Table 1 Baseline (2000–2002) characteristics of study participants by prevalent AVC and MAC (N = 6253)

From: Exposure to ambient air pollution and calcification of the mitral annulus and aortic valve: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

  All AVC at Baseline MAC at Baseline
  (N = 6253) Yes (n = 812, 13%) No (n = 5441, 87%) Yes (n = 585, 9%) No (n = 5668, 91%)
Characteristic      
Demographics      
Age (years) 62 ± 10 70 ± 8 61 ± 10† 72 ± 8 61 ± 10†
Men (%) 47.2 59.8 45.4† 40.6 47.9†
Ethnicity (%)      
 White 39.4 45.6 38.1† 49.1 38.4†
 Chinese 11.9 7.9 12.9 5.8 12.5
 Black 26.5 23.1 26.8 20.4 27.1
 Hispanic 22.2 23.4 22.3 24.7 22
Education level (%)      
 Less than high school 17.6 23.2 17.0† 22.8 17.0†
 High school or vocational school 41.4 41.5 41.2 43.2 41.2
 College, graduate or professional school 41.1 35.3 41.8 34.1 41.8
Annual family income (in $, %)      
 ≤24,999 30.9 38.1 29.9 43.0 29.7†
 25,000–49,999 29.1 32.0 28.7 30.7 29.0
 50,000–74,999 17.3 14.2 17.7 12.2 17.8
 ≥75,000 22.7 15.8 23.7 14.2 23.6
Smoking status (%)      
 Current smokers 12.8 10.1 13.3† 9.8 13.1*
 Former smokers 36.6 46.6 35.1 40.0 36.3
General health characteristics      
Diabetes (%) 12.4 19.5 11.3† 18.2 11.8†
Statin use (%) 16.4 26.3 14.7† 26 15.4†
Antihypertensive use (%) 32.6 48.9 30.1† 47.8 31.1†
Body-mass index (kg/m2) 28.3 ± 5.5 28.5 ± 4.9 28.3 ± 5.5 28.9 ± 5.6 28.3 ± 5.4†
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 126 ± 21 135 ± 22 125 ± 21† 135 ± 23 125 ± 21†
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)‡ 51.0 ± 14.8 48.8 ± 13.6 51.3 ± 14.9† 52.0 ± 15.1 50.9 ± 14.7
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)‡ 194.4 ± 35.9 195.2 ± 38.2 194.1 ± 35.4 193.5 ± 37.9 194.5 ± 35.6
Estimated glomerular filtration rate 78.1 ± 16.3 70.9 ± 16.5 79.2 ± 16.0† 69.9 ± 16.8 78.9 ± 16.0†
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 1.9 (3.4) 2.0 (3.2) 1.9 (3.4) * 2.2 (3.5) 1.8 (3.4) *
Physical activity (MET-min/wk) 4043 (5535) 3480 (4890) 4151 (5689) † 3814 (4668) 4073 (5703) †
Air pollution in year 2000      
Household PM2.5 (μg/m3) 16.8 ± 2.9 16.8 ± 2.9 16.8 ± 2.9 16.8 ± 2.9 16.8 ± 2.9
Household NOx (ppb) 51.3 ± 27.8 51.8 ± 29.0 51.2 ± 27.8 51.0 ± 27.9 51.3 ± 27.9
Individual-level PM2.5 (μg/m3) 11.0 ± 3.3 11.0 ± 3.3 11.0 ± 3.3 10.9 ± 3.2 11.0 ± 3.3
  1. Results are reported as percent, mean ± standard deviation or median (interquartile range)
  2. P-values for continuous variables were calculated using t test with equal variances or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test where appropriate, and for categorical variables using chi-square test
  3. P < 0.001; *P < 0.05
  4. ‡ To convert total and HDL-C cholesterol from mg/dl to mmol/L, divide by 38.67