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Table 2 Adjusted associations of air pollutants with prevalent AVC and MAC, compared to CAC at the MESA baseline exam (2000–2002)

From: Exposure to ambient air pollution and calcification of the mitral annulus and aortic valve: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

Prevalence Risk Ratio (95% CI)
Model PM2.5 (per 5 μg/m3) PM2.5iwa (per 5 μg/m3) NOx (per 40 ppb)
Prevalent AVC  
 1† 1.13 (0.85, 1.50) 1.23 (0.98, 1.54) 1.14 (0.94, 1.38)
 2‡ 1.18 (0.87, 1.60) 1.27 (1.00, 1.62) 1.13 (0.92–1.37)
3 1.19 (0.87, 1.62) 1.26 (0.98, 1.61) 1.11 (0.91–1.37)
 4** 1.09 (0.82, 1.60) 1.28 (1.01, 1.64) 1.09 (0.86–1.33)
Prevalent MAC    
 1† 1.26 (0.89, 1.78) 1.10 (0.83, 1.45) 1.02 (0.82–1.27)
 2‡ 1.20 (0.81, 1.76) 1.06 (0.79, 1.42) 0.94 (0.75–1.19)
3 1.20 (0.81, 1.77) 1.01 (0.75, 1.37) 0.95 (0.75–1.21)
 4** 1.12 (0.75, 1.68) 1.02 (0.75, 1.38) 0.98 (0.72–1.20)
Prevalent CAC    
 1† 1.12 (1.01, 1.25) 1.02 (0.94, 1.11) 1.03 (0.96, 1.10)
 2‡ 1.13 (1.01, 1.27) 1.04 (0.95, 1.13) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
3 1.14 (1.01, 1.27) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 1.01 (0.93, 1.08)
 4** 1.16 (1.03, 1.31) 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 1.01 (0.93, 1.09)
  1. *Bolded results are statistically significant
  2. †Model 1: age, sex, race/ethnicity, metropolitan area and CT scan type
  3. ‡Model 2: Model 1 plus smoking status, second-hand smoke exposure, physical activity, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and statin use
  4. Model 3 (Main model): Model 2 plus income and education
  5. **Model 4: Model 3 plus family history of heart attack, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, anti-hypertensive medication use, C-reactive protein and eGFR