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Table 3 Adjusted associations of annual averages of PM2.5 and NOx with annual change in AVC and MAC over follow-up, compared to CAC

From: Exposure to ambient air pollution and calcification of the mitral annulus and aortic valve: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA)

Results presented as Agatston units/year (95% CI)
Model PM2.5 (per 5 μg/m3) PM2.5iwa (per 5 μg/m3) NOx (per 40 ppb)
Change in AVC    
 1† 0.99 (−3.77, 5.75) −0.37 (−3.89, 3.16) −0.73 (−4.53, 3.06)
 2‡ 0.33 (−4.98, 5.64) −0.21 (−4.08, 3.66) −1.74 (−5.94, 2.46)
3 0.29 (−5.05, 5.63) −0.42 (−4.37, 3.54) −1.90 (−6.20, 2.40)
 4** −0.78 (−5.50, 3.94) −1.15 (−4.55, 2.25) −2.58 (−6.30, 1.20)
Change in MAC    
 1† 2.85 (−9.21, 14.91) −0.61 (−8.94, 7.71) 1.28 (−8.33, 10.89)
 2‡ 3.40 (−10.03, 16.83) 1.28 (−7.82, 10.38) 2.32 (−8.29, 12.93)
3 4.38 (−9.13, 17.88) 2.15 (−7.14, 11.43) 3.94 (−6.93, 14.83)
 4** 2.72 (−11.21, 16.65) 1.44 (−8.24, 11.12) 2.26 (−8.87, 13.39)
Change in CAC    
 1† 6.84 (−0.68, 14.36) 2.64 (−2.70, 7.98) 3.44 (−2.56, 9.43)
 2‡ 8.36 (0.36, 16.37) 3.18 (−2.43, 8.79) 3.43 (−2.89, 9.75)
3 8.66 (0.61, 16.71) 3.07 (−2.65, 8.79) 3.66 (−2.82, 10.14)
 4** 9.12 (1.16, 17.09) 3.39 (−2.16, 8.94) 2.55 (−3.31, 8.91)
  1. *Bolded results are statistically significant
  2. †Model 1: age, sex, race/ethnicity, metropolitan area and CT scan type
  3. ‡Model 2: Model 1 plus smoking status, second-hand smoke exposure, physical activity, body mass index, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and statin use
  4. Model 3 (Main model): Model 2 plus income and education
  5. **Model 4: Model 3 plus family history of heart attack, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, anti-hypertensive medication use, C-reactive protein and eGFR