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Table 4 Percent change in the number of Psychiatric Emergency Visits (PEVs) with their 95% Confidence Intervals for an increase in 10 μg/m3 in lag 0 of the air pollutant for Single and Multi-pollutant models during the colder season (October to March)

From: The association between daily concentrations of air pollution and visits to a psychiatric emergency unit: a case-crossover study

  Model PM10 NO2 O3
Change PEVs (%) (95% CI) Change PEVs (%) (95% CI) Change PEVs (%) (95% CI)
Single Pollutant Crudea 1.3 (−1.2–3.9) 0.5 (−0.9–2.0) −0.4 (−1.6–0.7)
Single Pollutant Adjustedb 1.6 (−0.9–4.3) 0.5 (−1.0–2.0) −0.3 (−1.6–0.9)
Two-pollutants
 PM10 + NO2 Crude 1.1 (−1.5–3.8) 1.0 (−0.6–2.7)  
 PM10 + NO2 Adjusted 1.5 (−1.2–4.2) 0.8 (−0.9–2.5)  
 PM10 + O3 Crude 0.7 (−2.2–3.7)   0.7 (−1.3–1.4)
 PM10 + O3 Adjusted 1.0 (−0.2–4.1)   0.2 (−1.1–1.6)
 NO2 + O3 Crude   0.5 (−1.5–2.7) −0.3 (−1.9–1.3)
 NO2 + O3 Adjusted   0.5 (−2.0–3.0) −0.3 (−1.9–1.4)
Three-pollutants
 PM10 + NO2 + O3 Crude 0.5 (−2.5–3.5) 2.0 (−0.4–4.5) 0.9 (−1.0–2.8)
 PM10 + NO2 + O3 Adjusted 0.8 (−2.3–4.0) 2.0 (−0.6–4.6) 1.1 (−0.9–3.1)
  1. aModel with only air pollutants
  2. bAdjusted = Model adjusting for daily mean temperature (continuous) and public Swedish holiday (Yes/No)