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Table 1 Prevalence of demographic factors by Staphylococcus aureus colonization status

From: Heavy metal exposure and nasal Staphylococcus aureus colonization: analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

  None MSSA MRSA
Demographics n (%) n (%) n (%)
Total 13,220 (69.5) 5198 (29.3) 208 (1.2)
Age ***
 1–17 5419 (63.8) 2521 (35.3) 72 (0.9)
 18–29 2063 (69.4) 819 (29.7) 19 (0.9)
 30–49 2336 (70.8) 855 (28.4) 29 (0.8)
 50–69 1919 (71.8) 631 (26.2) 43 (1.9)
 70 + 1483 (76.9) 372 (21.0) 45 (2.1)
Sex ***
 Male 6211 (66.2) 2794 (32.9) 93 (1.0)
 Female 7009 (72.7) 2404 (25.9) 115 (1.4)
Race ***
 White 5293 (68.4) 2254 (30.3) 102 (1.3)
 Mexican 3334 (71.2) 1287 (28.1) 33 (0.7)
 Other Hispanic 471 (64.1) 265 (35.7) 2 (0.2)
 Black 3559 (75.3) 1196 (23.3) 64 (1.4)
 Other 563 (73.3) 196 (25.8) 7 (0.9)
Education **
 < High School Diploma 6063 (66.0) 2753 (32.8) 93 (1.2)
 High School Diploma 1971 (72.2) 695 (26.5) 30 (1.3)
 > High School Diploma 3317 (70.0) 1239 (28.9) 54 (1.1)
Income *
 < 200% FPL 6475 (69.9) 2491 (28.6) 121 (1.5)
 ≥ 200% FPL 5829 (69.6) 2344 (29.5) 72 (0.9)
Smoking ***
 Current Smoker 2105 (75.1) 664 (23.8) 31 (1.1)
 Former Smoker 2217 (70.4) 771 (27.5) 57 (2.1)
 Never Smoker 8877 (67.4) 3781 (31.7) 120 (0.9)
Metals GM (95% CI) GM (95% CI) GM (95% CI)
 Blood Lead ug/dL 1.50 (1.48, 1.52) 1.43 (1.40, 1.45) 1.74 (1.58, 1.93)
 Blood Cadmium ug/L 0.30 (0.30, 0.31) 0.27 (0.26, 0.28) 0.31 (0.28, 0.35)
Diet Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI)
 Iron g 14.89 (14.73, 15.05) 15.52 (15.25, 15.79) 16.13 (14.71, 17.55)
 Calcium g 875.25 (864.87, 885.64) 922.35 (905.00, 939.70) 876.08 (792.21, 959.95)
 Vitamin C g 97.95 (96.4, 99.86) 94.22 (91.44, 97.00) 112.78 (94.16, 131.40)
 Fruits and Vegetables g 372.23 (363.41, 381.04) 340.60 (327.31, 353.89) 410.52 (338.23, 482.81)
  1. *P ≤ 0.05;**P ≤ 0.005; ***P ≤ 0.0005. Data from NHANES 2001–2004, n = 18,626. Percentages are adjusted using survey weights to be representative of the United States population. Abbreviations: NHANES – National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; MSSA – Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus; MRSA – Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; FPL – Federal Poverty Level; GM – Geometric mean; CI – Confidence interval