Skip to main content

Table 1 Distribution of maternal 1976 serum TCDD levels (ppt, lipid-adjusted) by maternal and child-based characteristics; SWHS, Italy, 1976–2016

From: Prenatal exposure to TCDD and atopic conditions in the Seveso second generation: a prospective cohort study

  N (%) N = 676 children of 438 mothers 1976 Serum TCDD (ppt) Median (IQR)
Maternal characteristics (n = 438)
 Age at explosion (years)*
  < 11 137 (31.3) 162.0 (57.8–327.0)
  11–17 143 (32.7) 55.0 (26.7–111.0)
  18+ 158 (36.1) 43.8 (22.0–99.5)
 Atopic history
  Yes 91 (20.8) 85.2 (35.0–222.0)
  No 347 (79.2) 63.3 (29.1–166.0)
 Age at pregnancy (years)
  < 26 140 (20.7) 44.1 (21.0–103.5)
  26–29 194 (28.7) 62.3 (29.6–160.0)
  30–33 177 (26.2) 76.2 (34.4–214.0)
  34+ 165 (24.4) 76.9 (37.5–214.0)
 BMI (kg/m2) closest to birth year
  < 25 (underweight/normal) 477 (70.6) 67.5 (30.8–185.0)
  25–29 (overweight) 148 (21.9) 49.9 (23.7–164.0)
  30+ (obese) 51 (7.5) 86.7 (28.4–162.0)
 Smoking during pregnancy a
  Yes 63 (9.3) 55.2 (20.7–109.0)
  No 609 (90.1) 66.8 (30.2–185.0)
Child Characteristics (n = 676)
 Pre-term birth (< 37 weeks)
  Yes 46 (6.8) 90.2 (33.2–245.0)
  No 630 (93.2) 64.3 (29.6–173.0)
 Season of birth
  Spring 174 (25.7) 55.5 (29.0–196.0)
  Summer 167 (24.7) 66.8 (29.9–174.0)
  Fall 171 (25.3) 66.7 (28.6–176.0)
  Winter 164 (24.3) 72.6 (33.4–170.0)
 Breastfeeding duration (months)
  < 1 214 (31.7) 60.3 (28.6–150.0)
  1–4 250 (37.0) 69.9 (30.6–173.0)
  5+ 212 (31.4) 66.2 (34.4–212.0)
 Birth order
  1 401 (59.3) 70.0 (31.0–185.0)
  2 236 (34.9) 63.3 (29.3–172.0)
  3+ 39 (5.8) 49.9 (19.5–105.0)
 Sex
  Males 336 (49.7) 60.1 (26.9–158.5)
  Females 340 (50.3) 75.0 (33.2–196.0)
 Age at follow-up*
  2–13 161 (23.8) 166.0 (49.0–433.0)
  14–22 167 (24.7) 66.2 (33.2–163.4)
  23–30 171 (25.3) 60.0 (29.4–123.0)
  31–39 177 (26.2) 40.7 (21.3–85.2)
 Primary wage earner education at follow-up
  Less than high school 200 (29.6) 65.3 (29.8–153.5)
  High school 251 (37.1) 75.2 (33.3–247.0)
  Greater than high school 225 (33.3) 60.0 (23.9–140.0)
  1. aNumbers do not add to 100% because of missing data. 4 missing values for maternal smoking during pregnancy
  2. *p < 0.05 (ANOVA significant difference in log10TCDD by covariates)