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Table 1 Summary of the urine GLY levels (ng/mL) and maternal characteristics in the Indiana birth cohort

From: Glyphosate exposure in pregnancy and shortened gestational length: a prospective Indiana birth cohort study

Covariate N (%) Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 IQR Mean SD Min Max CV p-value
Glyphosate (ng/mL) 71 (100) 2.84 3.25 3.91 7.20 1.06 3.40 1.24 0.50 7.20 0.36  
Ethnicity/Race             0.17
ᅟNon-Hispanic White 67 (94.4) 2.84 3.23 3.81 7.20 0.97 3.36 1.25 0.50 7.20 0.37
ᅟAsian 4 (5.6) 3.55 4.28 4.82 4.89 1.27 4.10 0.93 2.93 4.89 0.23
Infant Sex             0.79
ᅟMale 38 (53.5) 2.86 3.21 4.30 7.20 1.44 3.52 1.27 0.50 7.20 0.36  
ᅟFemale 33 (46.5) 2.84 3.30 3.74 6.69 0.90 3.26 1.22 0.50 6.69 0.37  
Maternal Education             0.09
ᅟHigh school diploma or less 14 (19.7) 3.18 3.70 4.79 5.69 1.61 3.83 1.34 0.50 5.69 0.35  
ᅟAssociate’s or some college 23 (32.4) 2.73 3.05 3.97 7.20 1.23 3.24 1.38 0.50 7.20 0.42  
ᅟBachelor’s degree or higher 34 (47.9) 2.84 3.26 3.59 6.69 0.75 3.33 1.10 0.50 6.69 0.33  
Residential Area             0.01
ᅟRural 14 (19.7) 3.33 4.05 5.24 7.20 1.90 4.19 1.58 0.50 7.20 0.38  
ᅟSuburban 50 (70.4) 2.76 3.05 3.58 6.69 0.82 3.17 1.13 0.50 6.69 0.36  
ᅟUrban 7 (9.9) 3.19 3.41 3.74 4.24 0.55 3.47 0.50 2.77 4.24 0.14  
Organic Food Consumption             0.62
ᅟNever 10 (14.1) 2.86 3.67 4.75 7.20 1.89 3.86 1.83 0.50 7.20 0.47  
ᅟRarely 39 (54.9) 2.84 3.20 3.81 6.69 0.98 3.37 1.24 0.50 6.69 0.37  
ᅟAlways or frequently 22 (31.0) 2.90 3.32 3.63 4.80 0.73 3.25 0.91 0.50 4.80 0.28  
Corn/Soy Consumption             0.69
ᅟ2 days per week or less 5 (7.0) 3.23 3.26 3.75 4.53 0.52 3.50 0.67 2.75 4.53 0.19  
ᅟ3 days per week or more 66 (93.0) 2.84 3.24 3.92 7.20 1.08 3.39 1.28 0.50 7.20 0.38  
Drinking Water Source             0.11
ᅟPublic water (some bottled water) 24 (33.8) 3.04 3.41 4.32 7.20 1.28 3.74 1.25 0.50 7.20 0.33  
ᅟPublic supply 42 (59.2) 2.75 3.16 3.59 6.69 0.84 3.19 1.25 0.50 6.69 0.39  
ᅟPrivate well 4 (5.6) 2.81 2.98 3.55 4.85 0.74 3.38 0.99 2.72 4.85 0.29  
ᅟNot reported 1 (1.4) 4.23 4.23 4.23 4.23 0.00 4.23 NA 4.23 4.23   
Pre-pregnancy BMI             0.15
ᅟLess than 25 33 (46.5) 2.94 3.23 4.80 7.20 1.86 3.59 1.53 0.50 7.20 0.43  
ᅟ25 to 30 20 (28.2) 2.82 3.59 4.23 4.85 1.41 3.54 0.76 1.97 4.85 0.21  
ᅟGreater than 30 18 (25.4) 2.75 3.05 3.30 4.27 0.56 2.89 0.96 0.50 4.27 0.33  
Stressful Pregnancy             0.21
ᅟNot stressful 27 (38.0) 2.78 3.13 3.65 5.69 0.87 3.29 0.95 0.50 5.69 0.29  
ᅟSomewhat stressful 37 (52.1) 2.94 3.30 3.74 7.20 0.80 3.37 1.26 0.50 7.20 0.37  
ᅟVery stressful 6 (8.5) 3.38 4.61 5.39 6.69 2.01 4.17 2.17 0.50 6.69 0.52  
ᅟNot reported 1 (1.4) 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 0.00 2.75 NA 2.75 2.75   
Consume Caffeine             0.99
ᅟNo 9 (12.7) 2.80 3.30 3.75 4.89 0.95 3.49 0.84 2.66 4.89 0.24  
ᅟYes 62 (87.3) 2.85 3.24 3.92 7.20 1.07 3.39 1.30 0.50 7.20 0.38  
Caffeine Intake             0.02
ᅟLess than 8 oz 16 (22.5) 2.76 3.55 4.32 7.20 1.57 3.52 1.45 0.50 7.20 0.41  
ᅟ8 oz. to 24 oz 38 (53.5) 2.85 3.18 3.54 5.34 0.69 3.05 1.04 0.50 5.34 0.34  
ᅟ24 oz. or more 8 (11.3) 3.67 4.91 5.60 6.69 1.92 4.69 1.34 2.84 6.69 0.29  
ᅟNot reported 9 (12.7) 2.80 3.30 3.75 4.89 0.95 3.49 0.84 2.66 4.89 0.24  
Household Income             0.13
ᅟLess than $50,000 22 (31.0) 3.07 3.33 3.84 4.93 0.78 3.40 0.87 0.50 4.36 0.26  
ᅟ$50,000 to $99,999 27 (38.0) 2.71 2.93 3.53 6.69 0.82 2.96 1.40 0.50 6.69 0.47  
ᅟ$100,000 or more 15 (21.1) 2.96 3.23 3.66 4.89 0.71 3.44 0.70 2.66 4.89 0.20  
ᅟNot reported 7 (9.9) 4.09 5.34 5.63 7.20 1.54 5.01 1.37 3.13 7.20 0.27  
Maternal Age             0.46
ᅟLess than 20 2 (2.8) 3.24 3.45 3.66 3.87 0.42 3.45 0.60 3.03 3.87 0.17  
ᅟ20 to 35 64 (90.1) 2.82 3.21 3.86 7.20 1.04 3.37 1.30 0.50 7.20 0.38  
ᅟGreater than 35 5 (7.0) 3.30 3.41 3.94 4.80 0.63 3.75 0.64 3.30 4.80 0.17  
Hypertension             0.28
ᅟNo 52 (73.2) 2.83 3.21 3.75 7.20 0.92 3.33 1.27 0.50 7.20 0.38  
ᅟYes 19 (26.8) 2.96 3.52 4.10 5.69 1.15 3.59 1.17 0.50 5.69 0.33  
Diabetes             0.08
ᅟNo 65 (91.5) 2.83 3.20 3.74 7.20 0.91 3.36 1.29 0.50 7.20 0.38  
ᅟYes 6 (8.5) 3.49 3.84 4.19 4.53 0.69 3.85 0.50 3.23 4.53 0.13  
Drug Use             NR
ᅟNo 69 (97.2) 2.84 3.25 3.87 7.20 1.03 3.42 1.20 0.50 7.20 0.35  
ᅟYes 1 (1.4) 4.93 4.93 4.93 4.93 0.00 4.33 NA 4.93 4.93   
ᅟNot reported 1 (1.4) 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.00 0.50 NA 0.50 0.50   
Tobacco Use             0.93
ᅟNo 59 (83.1) 2.91 3.26 3.75 7.20 0.84 3.42 1.14 0.50 7.20 0.33  
ᅟYes 12 (16.9) 2.62 3.12 4.63 5.69 2.01 3.30 1.73 0.50 5.69 0.52  
Alcohol Use             0.86
ᅟNo 68 (95.8) 2.84 3.26 3.89 7.20 1.05 3.39 1.25 0.50 7.20 0.37  
ᅟYes 3 (4.2) 2.88 3.05 3.99 4.93 1.11 3.56 1.20 2.70 4.33 0.34  
  1. Legend: N = number of samples; Q1 = first quartile; Q2 = second quartile; Q3 = third quartile; Q4 = fourth quartile; IQR = inter-quartile range; Mean = mean GLY value of each group; Min = minimum value in the group; SD = standard deviation of group; CV = coefficient of variation; p-value derived from Kruskal Wallis chi-square test at significance level of 0.05 for comparisons across groups; NR = not reported due to one case of drug use; NA = not applicable