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Table 2 Selected studies indicating endocrine activity*

From: Exploring the endocrine activity of air pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction

Chemical Estrogenic Androgenic Thyroidogenic Progestrogenic Glucocorticodogenic Steroidogenesis
benzene^ Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]     
toluene^ Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]     
n-hexane^ Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]     
p-xylene^       Ungvary et al., 1981 [106]
ethylbenzene^ Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]     
xylenes^ Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]   Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]   
methylcyclohexane       Kim et al., 2011 [107]
styrene^ Kassotis et al., 2014 [10]; Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2014 [10]; Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Takao et al., 2000 [108]
cumene^ Kassotis et al., 2014 [10]; Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2014 [10]; Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]   Kassotis et al., 2015 [41]   
benzo[a]pyrene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109] Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]     Monteiro et al., 2000a [111]
naphthalene^ Kassotis et al., 2014 [10]; Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2014 [10]; Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Kassotis et al., 2015 [41] Evanson and Van Der Kraak, 2001 [112]; Pollino et al., 2009 [113]
phenanthrene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109]      Monteiro et al., 2000a [111]; Monteiro et al., 2000b [114]
anthracene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109]      
benz[a]anthracene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109] Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]     
chrysene^   Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]     Monteiro et al., 2000a [111]; Monteiro et al., 2000b [114]
fluoranthene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109] Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]; Araki et al., 2005 [115]     
fluorene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109]      
pyrene^ Vondracek et al., 2002 [109]      
dibenz(a,h)anthracene^   Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]     
dibenzothiophene^ Brinkmann et al., 2014 [116]; Petersen and Tollefsen, 2011 [117]      
mercury^    Barregard et al., 1994 [118]    
  1. Twenty-one air pollutants had evidence indicating that they impact hormone production, mimic hormones, or inhibit hormone signaling. There were 19 chemicals listed on the TEDX List of Potential Endocrine Disruptors and two that were identified via PubMed searches of frequently detected UOG air pollutants. The studies listed in the table tested estrogenic, androgenic, thyroidogenic, progestrogenic, glucocorticodogenic, and steroidogenic activity in various manners including: in vitro steroidogenesis, receptor mediated reporter gene activity, vitellogenin induction assays, and epidemiological, in vivo and ex vivo experimental animal assessments. ^hazardous air pollutant (HAP) * Note: all possible endocrine activities for the individual chemicals are not described.