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Table 3 Selected studies demonstrating effects potentially related to endocrine disruption*

From: Exploring the endocrine activity of air pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction

Chemical Reproductive Aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling Developmental Neurophysiological Other evidence of endocrine activity
benzene^ Xu et al., 1998 [119]   Brown-Woodman et al., 1994 [120]   aChoi et al., 2014 [121]
propane McKee et al., 2014 [122]     
toluene^ Ono et al., 1996 [123]   Brown-Woodman et al., 1994 [120]   
isopentane      bYu et al., 2011 [124]
n-hexane^ Nylén et al., 1989 [125]     cZorad et al., 1987 [126]
p-xylene^    Ungvary and Tatrai, 1985 [127]   
m-xylene^    Ungvary and Tatrai, 1985 [121]   
ethylbenzene^    Ungvary and Tatrai, 1985 [127]   dNational Toxicology Program. 1999 [128]
o-xylene^    Ungvary and Tatrai, 1985 [127]   
xylenes^    Brown-Woodman et al., 1994 [120]   
methylcyclohexane Kim et al., 2011 [107]     
n-heptane      cZorad et al., 1987 [126]
propylene Quest et al., 1984 [129]     Quest et al., 1984 [129]
styrene^    Brown-Woodman et al., 1994 [120] Zaidi et al., 1985 [130]; Mutti et al., 1984 [131]  
acetone     Mitran et al., 1997 [132]  
2-butanone^     Mitran et al., 1997 [132]  
benzo[a]pyrene^ Thomas, 1990 [133] Machala et al., 2001 [134]; Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]    
hydrogen sulfide Xu et al., 1998 [119]     
naphthalene^ Sarojini et al., 1995 [135]     
phenanthrene^ Evans and Nipper, 2007 [136]     
anthracene^ Hall and Oris, 1991 [137]     
benz[a]anthracene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]; Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]    eBenisek et al., 2011 [138]
benzo[k]fluoranthene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]    
chrysene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]    
fluoranthene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]    
fluorene^    Incardona et al., 2004 [139]   
indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]    
methylene chloride^     Moser et al., 1995[140]  
pyrene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]    
benzo[e]pyrene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]    
dibenz(a,h)anthracene^   Machala et al., 2001 [134]; Vinggaard et al., 2000 [110]    
dibenzothiophene^    Incardona et al., 2004 [139]   
perchloroethylene^ Carney et al., 2006 [141]   Fredriksson et al., 1993 [142] Fredriksson et al., 1993 [142]; Honma et al., 1980 [143]; Shafer et al., 2005 [144] bNational Toxicology Program, 1986 [145]
  1. Thirty-three air pollutants had evidence indicating they impacted processes and systems that are modulated by endocrine signaling. There were 25 chemicals listed on the TEDX list of Potential endocrine disruptors and eight that were identified via PubMed searches of frequently detected UOG air pollutants. The studies listed in the table tested aryl hydrocarbon signaling, reproductive, developmental, neurophysiological, and other endocrine related effects in epidemiological, in vivo and ex vivo experimental animal assessments, in vitro embryonic culture and receptor mediated reporter gene activity assays. a insulin resistance; b adrenal physiology; c insulin binding; d hyperplasia of pituitary and thyroid; e retinoic acid signaling; ^hazardous air pollutant (HAP). * Note that all potentially related endocrine impacts for the individual chemicals are not described