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Table 1 Allergic sensitisation, self-reported allergic disease, lung function testing, weighted road density and potential confounders at age 5 and 8 years

From: Childhood fish oil supplementation modifies associations between traffic related air pollution and allergic sensitisation

  At age 5 years At age 8 years
Positive skin prick tests (Skin prick test > 3 mm) Number (%) n Number (%) n
 Any of 11 inhalant and food allergensa 151 (36.9%) 409 173 (45.3%) 382
 Inhalant allergenb 145 (35.4%) 409 170 (44.5%) 382
 Ingested allergenc 25 (6.1%) 409 30 (7.9%) 382
 House dust mite (HDM) 120 (29.3%) 409 137 (35.9%) 382
 Ryegrass 43 (10.5%) 409 69 (18.1%) 381
 Grass mix 43 (10.5%) 409 51 (13.4%) 380
Alternaria tenuis 29 (7.1%) 409 43 (9.7%) 380
 Cockroach 18 (4.4%) 409 18 (4.7%) 381
 Cat dander 16 (4.5%) 409 23 (4.5%) 382
Cytokines and total IgE
 HDM specific IL-5 responder 78 (25.4%) 307 78 (30.23%) 258
 HDM specific IL-10 responder 150 (51.1%) 293 121 (46.7%) 281
 Total IgE (kU/L) Median:70 IQR(25–186) 341 Median:118 IQR(37–392) 303
Questionnaire variables
 Doctor-diagnosed asthma 114 (27.2%) 418 119 (28.40%) 419
 Ever Doctor-diagnosed Asthma 141 (33.6%) 419 170 (40.5%) 419
 Wheeze in last 12 months 130 (31.1%) 418 114 (27.2%) 419
 Wheeze in the last 12 months + asthma diagnosis 83 (19.8%) 418 91 (21.7%) 419
 Cough in last 12 months at least four times 143 (34.2%) 418 101 (24.1%) 419
 Doctor diagnosed allergic rhinitis 23 (5.5%) 418 52 (12.4%) 419
 Doctor diagnosed eczema 119 (28.47%) 418 129 (30.7%) 419
 Eczema in the last 12 months 92 (22.1%) 416 58 (14.3%) 405
Spirometry Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) N
 FEV1 pre bronchodilator % predicted 115.8% (17.7) 328 100.1% (11.8) 396
 FVC pre bronchodilator % predicted 124.3% (20.3) 323 98.9% (11.6) 390
 FEV1 post bronchodilator % predicted 120.0% (18.4) 323 105.9% (11.1) 392
 FVC post bronchodilator % predicted 128.2% (19.7) 323 99.5% (10.6) 386
 FEV1/FVC ratio pre bronchodilator 0.93 (0.06) 328 0.89 (0.07) 391
 FEV1/FVC ratio post bronchodilator 0.93 (0.06) 328 0.93 (0.05) 387
 pre Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) 2.28 (0.47) 326 203 (37.1) 410
 post Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF) 2.33 (0.53) 321 211 (38.2) 406
 Pre forced expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity (FEF50) 1.60 (0.41) 326 2.18 (0.55) 410
 Post forced expiratory flow at 50% vital capacity(FEF50) 1.77 (0.51) 321 2.51 (0.53) 406
 Pre forced expiratory flow at mid-expiratory phase(FEF25–75) 1.46 (0.37) 326 2.11(0.43) 410
 Post forced expiratory flow at mid-expiratory phase(FEF25–75) 1.61 (0.46) 321 2.35 (0.43) 406
 Exposure Mean (SD) N Mean (SD) N
 Weighted road density within 50 m of home, where one unit represents 100 m local road or 33.3 m of motorway 1.04 (0.6) 390 1.1 (0.6) 389
 Mean Omega3:Omega6 ratio (fish oil supplemented vs. non-supplemented (p-value significance)) 0.18 vs. 0.14(***) 367 0.15 vs. 0.15(NS) 314
  Number (%) N Number (%) N
 Fish oil supplementation at age 5 years 214 (51%) 419 214 (51%) 419
 Urban environment 392 (93.7%) 418 421 (91.9%) 458
  1. aAny of egg white, egg yolk, salmon, tuna, peanuts, D. Pteronyssinus, cat dander, cockroach, alternaria, rye grass, grass mix, dog hair, aspergillus
  2. bAny of D. Pteronyssinus, cat dander, cockroach, rye grass, grass mix, alternaria, dog hair, aspergillus
  3. cAny of egg white, egg yolk, salmon, tuna, peanuts
  4. ***t-test p-value < 0.001
  5. NSt-test p-value > 0.1