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Table 1 Descriptive statistics (in percentage values, unless otherwise specified) of individual and neighborhood characteristics of NSHAP study participants by tertiles of greennessa

From: Association of neighborhood greenness with self-perceived stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in older U.S adults

Characteristic Greenness  
  3rd tertile (Greenest) 2nd tertile 1st tertile (Least green) p-value
No. of participants 2106 2140 2133  
Age (year, mean ± SD) 70.2 ± 7.9 71.1 ± 8.1 71.5 ± 8.3  
Male (%) 48.9 44.8 47.1 0.0275
Race (%)
 White 82.3 72.6 58.1 < 0.0001
 Black 14.8 17.3 16.6
 Hispanic non-black 1.6 8.3 21.5
 Other 1.3 1.9 3.8
BMI (kg/m2, mean ± SD) 29.2 ± 6.1 29.5 ± 6.1 29.3 ± 6.2  
Current smoking (%) 13.6 14.4 14.0 0.7463
Physically active (≥1 times per week, %) 69.6 64.0 64.5 0.0001
Socioeconomic status
Education attainment (%)
 College degree or greater 28.9 22.1 18.9 < 0.0001
 High school or vocational school 55.1 57.3 54.6
 Less than high school 16.0 20.6 26.5
Family income ($ in thousands, mean ± SD) 61.6 ± 73.1 53.2 ± 70.2 49.7 ± 70.3  
Median household incomeb ($ in thousands, mean ± SD) 59.7 ± 28.3 54.2 ± 25.6 50.2 ± 23.9  
Diabetes (%) 22.0 23.7 21.9 0.2861
Hypertension (%) 57.4 62.1 59.2 0.0065
Stroke (%) 8.9 9.9 8.6 0.3351
Heart failure (%) 6.8 8.0 6.3 0.0726
Respiratory illness (%) 17.6 15.9 15.2 0.0951
Lonely (≥80th percentile, %) 23.4 26.6 24.4 0.0495
Social support (socializing ≥1 per month, %) 49.9 46.5 43.4 0.0001
Much difficulty get-up-and-go (≥2 score, %) 22.6 22.7 23.1 0.9160
Perceived stress score (mean ± SD) 2.2 ± 2.3 2.6 ± 2.6 2.8 ± 2.5  
Anxiety score (mean ± SD) 4.0 ± 3.4 4.3 ± 3.5 4.3 ± 3.5  
Depressive score (mean ± SD) 5.0 ± 4.8 5.4 ± 5.1 5.5 ± 5.2  
Resided in MSA (%) 88.0 85.9 88.8 0.0122
Distance to A1–A3 roadway (%)
 0–49 m 14.8 14.8 18.7 < 0.0001
 50–199 m 17.0 26.3 33.3
  ≥ 200 m 68.3 58.9 48.1
Urbanicity (%, mean ± SD) 30.8 ± 26.2 52.1 ± 29.1 63.5 ± 32.0  
Temperature annual (ºC, mean ± SD) 18.5 ± 8.1 17.3 ± 8.9 16.4 ± 9.8  
PM2.5 annual concentration (μg/m3, mean ± SD) 11.4 ± 4.2 10.3 ± 4.1 9.9 ± 3.9  
  1. a2,261 participants were in both wave 1 and wave 2; 744 participants were in wave 1 only; 1,113 were in wave 2 only
  2. bEstimated for census tract of residence using data from the US Census Bureau (2000). Abbreviations: SD refers to standard deviation; BMI refers to body mass index; NDVI refers to the normalized difference vegetation index; MSA refers to metropolitan statistical area; PM2.5 refers to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micro or less