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Table 4 Associationsa between Rint and estimated annual average air pollution concentrations at the birth address and current home address from single-pollutant models

From: Air pollution and airway resistance at age 8 years – the PIAMA birth cohort study

Pollutant [increment] Model 1b Model 2c
β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value
Birth address   N = 975    N = 869  
 NO2 [8.4 μg/m3] 0.011 (− 0.001, 0.024) 0.0831 0.005 (− 0.010, 0.021) 0.4770
 NOx [11.2 μg/m3] 0.007 (− 0.002, 0.017) 0.1195 0.002 (−0.008, 0.013) 0.6868
 PM2.5 [1.1 μg/m3] 0.023 (0.007, 0.039) 0.0056 0.017 (−0.001, 0.034) 0.0611
 PM10 [1.3 μg/m3] 0.006 (−0.004, 0.016) 0.2612 0.002 (−0.008, 0.012) 0.7013
 PMcoarse [0.9 μg/m3] 0.003 (−0.008, 0.013) 0.6354 0.002 (−0.007, 0.010) 0.7391
 PM2.5 abs. [0.27 10−5/m] 0.013 (0.001, 0.024) 0.0274 0.008 (−0.004, 0.021) 0.1813
Current addressd   N = 965    N = 808  
 NO2 [8.4 μg/m3] 0.022 (0.008, 0.035) 0.0016 0.018 (0.001, 0.035) 0.0334
 NOx [11.2 μg/m3] 0.016 (0.006, 0.026) 0.0025 0.011 (−0.001, 0.022) 0.0781
 PM2.5 [1.1 μg/m3] 0.024 (0.006, 0.042) 0.0106 0.017 (−0.004, 0.039) 0.1079
 PM10 [1.1 μg/m3] 0.012 (0.001, 0.023) 0.0285 0.005 (−0.007, 0.017) 0.4275
 PMcoarse [0.7 μg/m3] 0.006 (−0.004, 0.016) 0.2335 0.000 (−0.011, 0.011) 0.9974
 PM2.5 abs. [0.27 10−5/m] 0.020 (0.007, 0.032) 0.0017 0.014 (0.000, 0.029) 0.0496
  1. aAssociations are presented as mean difference in Rint per interquartile range increase in air pollution exposure (β) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)
  2. bAdjusted for sex and age
  3. cAdjusted for sex, age, height, weight, parental education, parental allergies, maternal smoking during pregnancy, smoking in the child’s home, mold/dampness in living room and/or child’s bedroom, pets in the child’s home, use of gas for cooking, unvented gas water heater, older siblings, Dutch nationality, season; average air pollution concentration (NO2 in models with long-term NO2 and NOx; PM10 in models with long-term PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse; black smoke in models with long-term PM2.5 absorbance), ambient temperature and relative humidity on the day of the Rint test
  4. dAt the time of the Rint measurements