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Table 6 Modification of the associations between oil spill exposures and nonfatal MI by residential proximity to the oil spill. GuLF STUDY, 2010–2013

From: Deepwater Horizon oil spill exposures and nonfatal myocardial infarction in the GuLF STUDY

  MI cases/ total na RRb (95% CI) MI cases/ total na RRb (95% CI) LRTe P-value*
  Among workers and non-workers (N = 31,109)  
Direct/indirect proximity (n = 18,984) Away from the spill (n = 12,125)
Worked on clean-up
 Yes 106/13801 1.16 (0.79, 1.70) 43/9598 1.32 (0.62, 2.81) 0.81
 No 32/4686 ref 8/2186 ref
  Among clean-up workers and responders only (n = 24,375)  
Direct/indirect proximity (n = 14,140) Away from the spill (n = 9866)
Maximum exposure jobc
 Response Work 15/2439 0.83 (0.37, 1.87) 5/1872 0.58 (0.20, 1.66) 0.31
 Operations Work 29/2836 1.35 (0.65, 2.80) 10/1378 1.06 (0.42, 2.68)
 Clean-up on Water 17/2400 0.82 (0.40, 1.82) 3/1206 0.46 (0.12, 1.68)
 Decontamination 25/2366 1.88 (0.89, 3.95) 8/1077 1.33 (0.50, 3.49)
 Clean-up on Land 11/2128 0.87 (0.37, 2.06) 7/1360 1.02 (0.38, 2.71)
 Administration Support 10/1633 ref 10/2705 ref
Work durationd
  > 180 days 31/3392 1.50 (0.93, 2.40) 7/1770 0.97 (0.40, 2.33) 0.08
 91–180 days 37/4866 1.10 (0.71, 1.72) 20/3191 1.39 (0.73, 2.65)
 1–90 days 40/5545 ref 17/4638 ref
Ever had to stop work due to heatc
 Yes 56/5116 2.10 (1.42, 3.10) 14/2104 1.53 (0.80, 2.95) 0.56
 No 48/7898 ref 23/5945 ref
Worked near burning oilc
 Yes 10/1094 1.26 (0.65, 2.43) 3/978 0.78 (0.28, 2.20) 0.54
 No 96/12707 ref 40/8620 ref
Maximum overall THC exposure
  ≥ 3.00 ppm 17/1819 1.99 (0.88, 4.51) 7/1504 1.27 (0.47, 3.38) 0.48
 1.00–2.99 ppm 40/5018 1.42 (0.68, 2.94) 9/2165 0.92 (0.36, 2.38)
 0.30–0.99 ppm 41/4800 1.92 (0.93, 3.97) 18/2875 1.54 (0.68, 3.49)
  < 0.30 ppm 8/2151 ref 9/3041 ref
  1. Residential proximity to the spill is defined as living in or adjacent to a county or parish with coastline that was oiled during the spill
  2. aNumber of observations included in the fully adjusted model, by exposure status
  3. bRisk ratios (RR) adjusting for age, gender, BMI, education, and smoking
  4. cModels for the associations of stopping work due to heat with MI and working near burning oil with MI adjust for duration of clean-up work in addition to the confounders age, gender, BMI, education, and smoking
  5. dFor analyses of work duration stratified by residential proximity to the spill, the variable was recoded into 3 categories (1–90 days, 91–180 days, > 180 days) due to insufficient numbers of cases in the shorter work duration categories
  6. eLRT Likelihood Ratio Test. The LRT was used to assess statistical significance of an interaction term between the modifier variable and the main exposure variable
  7. *Alpha = 0.05