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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of environmental indicators by preterm birth status in Fresno County, 2009–2012 (N = 53,843)

From: Environmental pollution and social factors as contributors to preterm birth in Fresno County

Environmental exposure Preterm Birth Full Term Birth
< 37 weeks (N = 4560) ≥37 weeks (N = 49,283)
Exposures Score
   Mean (SD) 64.46 (9.83) 63.53 (10.34)
   Median (IQR) 65.23 (60.15–70.14) 64.71 (58.94–69.47)
 Ozone
   Mean (SD) 0.31 (0.09) 0.31 (0.09)
   Median (IQR) 0.32 (0.27–0.37) 0.32 (0.28–0.38)
 Pesticides
   Mean (SD) 452.78 (912.72) 477.23 (965.8)
   Median (IQR) 10.33 (0.00–505.73) 10.33 (0.00–524.69)
 PM2.5
   Mean (SD) 14.18 (1.13) 14.09 (1.26)
   Median (IQR) 14.28 (13.89–14.53) 14.25 (13.83–14.51)
 Diesel PM
   Mean (SD) 25.99 (17.66) 24.92 (17.54)
   Median (IQR) 22.96 (7.93–42.94) 20.79 (7.38–41.76)
 Toxic Release
   Mean (SD) 3111.81 (9510.54) 2874.46 (9198.78)
   Median (IQR) 469.15 (272.01–1109.65) 381.64 (236.93–1037.49)
 Traffic
   Mean (SD) 692.44 (471.82) 670.75 (467.61)
   Median (IQR) 621.44 (299.40–941.13) 605.60 (267.04–929.61)
 Drinking Water
   Mean (SD) 454.91 (114.09) 453.59 (117.42)
   Median (IQR) 406.83 (406.83–513.41) 406.83 (406.83–514.09)
  Arsenic
   Mean (SD) 1.38 (2.26) 1.40 (2.24)
   Median (IQR) 0.70 (0.70–0.84) 0.70 (0.70–0.86)
  Cadmium
   Mean (SD) 0.0007 (0.0076) 0.0006 (0.0068)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.00)
  1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
   Mean (SD) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.02)
   Median (IQR) 0.03 (0.03–0.03) 0.03 (0.03–0.03)
  Hexavalent chromium
   Mean (SD) 0.27 (0.63) 0.27 (0.62)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–0.06) 0.00 (0.00–0.07)
  Lead
   Mean (SD) 0.13 (0.40) 0.14 (0.43)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–0.02) 0.00 (0.00–0.02)
  Nitrate
   Mean (SD) 21.36 (7.36) 21.30 (7.68)
   Median (IQR) 25.30 (16.74–25.30) 25.30 (16.71–25.30)
  Perchlorate
   Mean (SD) 0.06 (0.33) 0.06 (0.32)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.00)
  Trichloroethylene (TCE)
   Mean (SD) 0.10 (0.07) 0.09 (0.07)
   Median (IQR) 0.15 (0.00–0.15) 0.15 (0.00–0.15)
  Trihalomethane (THM)
   Mean (SD) 4.53 (9.80) 5.13 (11.22)
   Median (IQR) 2.66 (0.96–2.66) 2.66 (0.96–2.66)
  Uranium
   Mean (SD) 3.38 (1.75) 3.36 (1.88)
   Median (IQR) 3.12 (3.12–3.18) 3.12 (3.12–3.17)
  Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) Violations
   Mean (SD) 0.85 (1.47) 0.85 (1.48)
   Median (IQR) 1.00 (0.00–1.00) 0.99 (0.00–1.00)
  Total coliform rule (TCR) Violations
   Mean (SD) 0.11 (0.31) 0.11 (0.32)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.00)
Environmental Effects Score
   Mean (SD) 24.68 (19.50) 24.77 (19.33)
   Median (IQR) 20.15 (8.30–38.25) 20.45 (8.30–38.25)
 Cleanup Sites
   Mean (SD) 6.21 (13.05) 6.32 (13.00)
   Median (IQR) 1.00 (0.00–8.00) 1.15 (0.00–8.00)
 Groundwater Threats
   Mean (SD) 15.23 (18.67) 15.34 (18.78)
   Median (IQR) 9.56 (1.50–20.94) 9.56 (1.50–21.00)
 Hazardous Waste
   Mean (SD) 0.36 (1.07) 0.36 (1.10)
   Median (IQR) 0.05 (0.00–0.21) 0.05 (0.00–0.21)
 Imperial Water Bodies
   Mean (SD) 0.47 (1.35) 0.51 (1.36)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.00)
 Solid Waste
   Mean (SD) 1.45 (2.76) 1.40 (2.76)
   Median (IQR) 0.00 (0.00–2.00) 0.00 (0.00–2.00)
Pollution Burden Score
   Mean (SD) 6.51 (1.04) 6.43 (1.07)
   Median (IQR) 6.33 (5.83–7.12) 6.24 (5.79–7.09)