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Table 4 Crude and adjusted odds ratio of preterm birth across quintiles of CalEnviroScreen indicators and scores in Fresno County, 2009–2012 (N = 53,843)

From: Environmental pollution and social factors as contributors to preterm birth in Fresno County

Type of Preterm Birth < 37 weeks (N = 4560) ≥37 weeks (N = 49,283)   
Environmental exposure N (%) N (%) cOR (95% CI) aORa (95% CI)
Exposures Score
   0 – 19th percentile 17 (0.4) 380 (0.8) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 74 (1.6) 863 (1.8) 1.84 (1.09, 3.12) 1.73 (1.01, 2.97)
   40 – 59th percentile 151 (3.3) 1834 (3.7) 1.78 (1.08, 2.93) 1.85 (1.12, 3.06)
   60 – 79th percentile 673 (14.8) 8666 (17.6) 1.68 (1.04, 2.72) 1.64 (1.01, 2.65)
   80 – 100th percentile 3633 (79.7) 37,428 (76.0) 2.07 (1.28, 3.33) 2.00 (1.25, 3.23)
 Ozone
   0 – 19th percentile Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 66 (0.1) NC NC
   40 – 59th percentile 178 (3.9) 2100 (4.3) NC NC
   60 – 79th percentile 631 (13.8) 6659 (13.5) NC NC
   80 – 100th percentile 3703 (81.2) 39,729 (80.6) NC NC
 Pesticides
   0 – 19th percentile 1768 (38.8) 19,587 (39.7) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 357 (7.8) 3486 (7.1) 1.12 (1.00, 1.26) 1.13 (1.01, 1.26)
   40 – 59th percentile 284 (6.2) 3082 (6.3) 1.02 (0.90, 1.16) 1.00 (0.88, 1.14)
  60 – 79th percentile 723 (15.9) 7565 (15.4) 1.05 (0.97, 1.15) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15)
   80 – 100th percentile 1428 (31.3) 15,563 (31.6) 1.02 (0.95, 1.09) 0.98 (0.92, 1.06)
 PM2.5
   0 – 19th percentile 20 (0.4) 315 (0.6) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 4.19 (0.56, 31.20) 4.02 (0.53, 30.23)
   40 – 59th percentile 38 (0.8) 650 (1.3) 0.93 (0.54, 1.59) 0.89 (0.51, 1.56)
   60 – 79th percentile 37 (0.8) 562 (1.1) 1.03 (0.60, 1.78) 1.07 (0.59, 1.94)
   80 – 100th percentile 4295 (94.2) 45,804 (92.9) 1.44 (0.93, 2.23) 1.36 (0.88, 2.11)
 Diesel Particulate Matter
   0 – 19th percentile 701 (15.4) 8391 (17.0) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 609 (13.4) 6616 (13.4) 1.09 (0.98, 1.22) 1.13 (1.02, 1.27)
   40 – 59th percentile 566 (12.4) 6582 (13.4) 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 1.11 (0.99, 1.25)
   60 – 79th percentile 738 (16.2) 7690 (15.6) 1.14 (1.02, 1.26) 1.20 (1.08, 1.33)
   80 – 100th percentile 1946 (52.7) 20,004 (40.6) 1.15 (1.05, 1.25) 1.16 (1.06, 1.26)
 Toxic Release
   0 – 19th percentile 166 (3.6) 1915 (3.9) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 466 (10.2) 6073 (12.3) 0.89 (0.75, 1.07) 0.99 (0.82, 1.19)
   40 – 59th percentile 2256 (49.5) 25,163 (51.1) 1.03 (0.88, 1.21) 1.10 (0.94, 1.28)
   60 – 79th percentile 1049 (23.0) 10,059 (20.4) 1.18 (1.01, 1.39) 1.21 (1.03, 1.42)
   80 – 100th percentile 623 (13.7) 6073 (12.3) 1.17 (0.98, 1.38) 1.16 (0.97, 1.37)
 Traffic
   0 – 19th percentile 1668 (36.6) 18,996 (38.5) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 962 (21.1) 10,572 (21.5) 1.03 (0.95, 1.12) 1.04 (0.96, 1.12)
   40 – 59th percentile 982 (21.5) 10,003 (20.3) 1.11 (1.02, 1.20) 1.09 (1.01, 1.18)
   60 – 79th percentile 923 (20.2) 9423 (19.1) 1.11 (1.02, 1.20) 1.09 (1.00, 1.18)
   80 – 100th percentile 25 (0.6) 289 (0.6) 0.99 (0.66, 1.46) 0.99 (0.67, 1.47)
 Drinking Water
   0 – 19th percentile 29 (0.6) 527 (1.1) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile NC NC
   40 – 59th percentile 382 (8.4) 4570 (9.3) 1.48 (1.01, 2.16) 1.50 (1.02, 2.19)
   60 – 79th percentile 2800 (61.4) 29,397 (59.7) 1.67 (1.16, 2.40) 1.67 (1.16, 2.41)
   80 – 100th percentile 1337 (29.3) 14,677 (29.8) 1.60 (1.11, 2.31) 1.67 (1.15, 2.41)
  Arsenic
   0 – 19th percentile 35 (0.8) 397 (0.8) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 190 (4.2) 2323 (4.7) 0.93 (0.65, 1.34) 0.91 (0.63, 1.31)
   40 – 59th percentile 3288 (72.1) 34,615 (70.2) 1.07 (0.77, 1.49) 1.04 (0.74, 1.45)
   60 – 79th percentile 455 (10.0) 5526 (11.2) 0.94 (0.67, 1.32) 0.93 (0.66, 1.31)
   80 – 100th percentile 580 (12.7) 6310 (12.8) 1.04 (0.74, 1.46) 0.98 (0.69, 1.38)
  Cadmium
   0 – 19th percentile 4336 (95.1) 46,850 (95.1) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 89 (0.2) 0.86 (0.41, 1.81) 0.86 (0.41, 1.82)
   40 – 59th percentile NC NC
   60 – 79th percentile 0.79 (0.11, 5.59) 0.69 (0.10, 4.90)
   80 – 100th percentile 216 (4.7) 2330 (4.7) 1.00 (0.87, 1.15) 1.00 (0.87, 1.14)
  1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
   0 – 19th percentile Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile NC NC
   40 – 59th percentile NC NC
   60 – 79th percentile 216 (4.7) 2314 (4.7) NC NC
   80 – 100th percentile 4303 (94.4) 46,330 (94.0) NC NC
  Hexavalent chromium
   0 – 19th percentile 2731 (59.9) 28,808 (58.5) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 162 (3.6) 1799 (3.7) 0.95 (0.81, 1.12) 0.99 (0.85, 1.16)
   40 – 59th percentile 671 (14.7) 7035 (14.3) 1.01 (0.92, 1.09) 1.00 (0.92, 1.09)
   60 – 79th percentile 426 (9.3) 5077 (10.3) 0.89 (0.81, 0.99) 0.89 (0.81, 0.99)
   80 – 100th percentile 219 (4.8) 2151 (4.4) 1.07 (0.92, 1.22) 1.06 (0.92, 1.21)
  Lead
   0 – 19th percentile 2781 (61.0) 29,538 (59.9) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 51 (1.1) 544 (1.1) 1.00 (0.76, 1.31) 1.02 (0.77, 1.34)
   40 – 59th percentile 71 (1.6) 869 (1.8) 0.88 (0.69, 1.11) 0.85 (0.67, 1.07)
   60 – 79th percentile 772 (16.9) 8534 (17.3) 0.96 (0.89, 1.04) 0.98 (0.90, 1.06)
   80 – 100th percentile 873 (19.1) 9686 (19.7) 0.96 (0.89, 1.04) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
  Nitrate
   0 – 19th percentile 123 (2.7) 1232 (2.5) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 62 (1.4) 807 (1.6) 0.79 (0.58, 1.07) 0.77 (0.56, 1.06)
   40 – 59th percentile 56 (1.2) 969 (2.0) 0.60 (0.44, 0.83) 0.59 (0.42, 0.81)
   60 – 79th percentile 250 (5.5) 2570 (5.2) 0.98 (0.79, 1.21) 1.01 (0.81, 1.27)
   80 – 100th percentile 4057 (89.0) 43,593 (88.5) 0.94 (0.78, 1.12) 1.05 (0.88, 1.26)
  Perchlorate
   0 – 19th percentile 3928 (86.1) 42,060 (85.3) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 23 (0.5) 305 (0.6) 0.82 (0.54, 1.24) 0.88 (0.58, 1.33)
   40 – 59th percentile 90 (2.0) 1001 (2.0) 0.97 (0.78, 1.19) 0.99 (0.81, 1.23)
   60 – 79th percentile 164 (3.6) 1902 (3.9) 0.93 (0.80, 1.09) 0.97 (0.83, 1.14)
  80 – 100th percentile 355 (7.8) 4015 (8.2) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) 0.97 (0.87, 1.08)
  Trichloroethylene (TCE)
   0 – 19th percentile 1244 (27.3) 13,123 (28.7) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 100 (0.2) 0.24 (0.06, 0.97) 0.27 (0.07, 1.07)
   40 – 59th percentile 24 (0.5) 388 (0.8) 0.72 (0.48, 1.08) 0.76 (0.51, 1.14)
   60 – 79th percentile 1144 (25.1) 12,506 (25.4) 1.04 (0.96, 1.12) 1.07 (0.98, 1.16)
   80 – 100th percentile 2134 (46.8) 22,054 (44.8) 1.09 (1.02, 1.17) 1.09 (1.01, 1.17)
  Trihalomethane (THM)
   0 – 19th percentile 4041 (88.6) 42,863 (87.0) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 182 (4.0) 2235 (4.5) 0.87 (0.75, 1.01) 0.86 (0.75, 1.00)
   40 – 59th percentile 270 (5.9) 3131 (6.4) 0.92 (0.81, 1.04) 1.01 (0.89, 1.15)
   60 – 79th percentile 112 (0.2) 1.12 (0.64, 1.98) 1.37 (0.78, 2.43)
   80 – 100th percentile 55 (1.2) 937 (1.9) 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) 0.62 (0.47, 0.81)
  Uranium
   0 – 19th percentile 29 (0.6) 527 (1.1) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 310 (6.8) 3787 (7.7) 1.45 (0.99, 2.12) 1.44 (0.98, 2.11)
   40 – 59th percentile 118 (2.6) 1614 (3.3) 1.31 (0.87, 1.96) 1.27 (0.85, 1.92)
   60 – 79th percentile 291 (6.4) 3061 (6.2) 1.66 (1.14, 2.44) 1.73 (1.18, 2.55)
   80 – 100th percentile 3668 (80.4) 38,646 (78.4) 1.66 (1.15, 2.40) 1.68 (1.17, 2.43)
  Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)Violations
   0 – 19th percentile 1028 (22.5) 11,257 (22.8) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 65 (0.1) 0.18 (0.03, 1.29) 1.20 (0.03, 1.41)
   40 – 59th percentile 93 (0.2) 0.37 (0.12, 1.16) 0.40 (0.13, 1.25)
   60 – 79th percentile 43 (0.9) 634 (1.3) 0.76 (0.56, 1.03) 0.74 (0.54, 1.00)
   80 – 100th percentile 3473 (76.2) 37,122 (75.3) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) 1.01 (0.94, 1.09)
  Total coliform rule (TCR) Violations
   0 – 19th percentile 3118 (68.4) 33,671 (68.3) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 113 (2.5) 1250 (2.5) 0.98 (0.81, 1.18) 1.00 (0.83, 1.21)
   40 – 59th percentile 95 (2.1) 953 (1.9) 1.07 (0.87, 1.31) 1.06 (0.86, 1.30)
   60 – 79th percentile 106 (2.3) 1267 (2.6) 0.91 (0.75, 1.11) 0.92 (0.76, 1.13)
   80 – 100th percentile 1128 (24.7) 12,142 (24.6) 1.00 (0.94, 1.07) 1.00 (0.93, 1.07)
Environmental Effects Score
   0 – 19th percentile 1725 (37.8) 18,282 (37.1) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 946 (20.8) 10,256 (20.8) 0.98 (0.90, 1.06) 0.97 (0.90, 1.06)
   40 – 59th percentile 556 (12.2) 6282 (12.8) 0.94 (0.86, 1.04) 0.92 (0.84, 1.01)
   60 – 79th percentile 837 (18.4) 9273 (18.8) 0.96 (0.88, 1.04) 0.93 (0.85, 1.01)
   80 – 100th percentile 496 (10.9) 5190 (10.5) 1.01 (0.92, 1.12) 0.94 (0.85, 1.05)
 Cleanup Sites
   0 – 19th percentile 2512 (55.1) 26,770 (54.3) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 537 (11.8) 5832 (11.8) 0.98 (0.90, 1.08) 1.01 (0.92, 1.11)
   40 – 59th percentile 561 (12.3) 6472 (13.1) 0.93 (0.85, 1.02) 0.90 (0.82, 0.99)
   60 – 79th percentile 486 (10.7) 5066 (10.3) 1.02 (0.93, 1.12) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11)
   80 – 100th percentile 464 (10.2) 5143 (10.4) 0.96 (0.87, 1.07) 0.94 (0.85, 1.03)
 Groundwater Threats
   0 – 19th percentile 1772 (38.9) 19,140 (38.8) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 683 (15.0) 8462 (15.1) 0.99 (0.91, 1.08) 1.00 (0.91, 1.09)
   40 – 59th percentile 976 (21.4) 10,124 (20.5) 1.04 (0.96, 1.12) 1.02 (0.95, 1.11)
   60 – 79th percentile 652 (14.3) 7472 (15.2) 0.95 (0.87, 1.04) 0.90 (0.82, 0.99)
   80 – 100th percentile 477 (10.5) 5085 (10.3) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) 0.95 (0.86, 1.06)
 Hazardous Waste
   0 – 19th percentile 2274 (49.9) 24,740 (50.2) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 709 (15.6) 7424 (15.1) 1.04 (0.95, 1.13) 1.01 (0.93, 1.10)
   40 – 59th percentile 658 (14.4) 7179 (14.6) 1.00 (0.91, 1.09) 0.98 (0.90, 1.07)
   60 – 79th percentile 446 (9.8) 5020 (10.2) 0.97 (0.8, 1.07) 0.95 (0.86, 1.05)
   80 – 100th percentile 473 (10.4) 4920 (10.0) 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) 1.01 (0.92, 1.12)
 Imperial Water Bodies
   0 – 19th percentile 4031 (88.4) 42,996 (87.2) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 286 (6.3) 3410 (6.9) 0.90 (0.80, 1.02) 0.90 (0.80, 1.02)
   40 – 59th percentile 162 (3.6) 2011 (4.1) 0.87 (0.74, 1.02) 0.84 (0.72, 0.98)
   60 – 79th percentile 38 (0.8) 434 (0.9) 0.94 (0.68, 1.29) 0.88 (0.64, 1.21)
   80 – 100th percentile 43 (0.9) 432 (0.9) 1.06 (0.78, 1.43) 0.92 (0.68, 1.24)
 Solid Waste
   0 – 19th percentile 2858 (62.7) 31,070 (63.0) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 300 (6.6) 3482 (7.1) 0.94 (0.84, 1.06) 0.90 (0.79, 1.01)
   40 – 59th percentile 351 (7.7) 3939 (8.0) 0.97 (0.87, 1.09) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06)
   60 – 79th percentile 689 (15.1) 7190 (14.6) 1.04 (0.96, 1.13) 1.01 (0.93, 1.10)
   80 – 100th percentile 362 (7.9) 3602 (7.3) 1.08 (0.97, 1.21) 1.05 (0.94, 1.17)
 Pollution Burden Score
   0 – 19th percentile 17 (0.4) 380 (0.8) Reference Reference
   20 – 39th percentile 64 (1.4) 1025 (2.1) 1.37 (0.80, 2.34) 1.38 (0.79, 2.40)
   40 – 59th percentile 399 (8.8) 4929 (10.0) 1.75 (1.07, 2.84) 1.78 (1.09, 2.88)
   60 – 79th percentile 1780 (39.0) 18,838 (38.2) 2.02 (1.25, 3.25) 1.98 (1.23, 3.19)
   80 – 100th percentile 2288 (50.2) 23,989 (48.7) 2.03 (1.26, 3.28) 1.98 (1.23, 3.19)
  1. cOR crude odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, age, education, payment for delivery
  3. n < 16
  4. NC not calculated (owing to lack of variability)