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Table 6 Crude and adjusted odds ratio of preterm birth comparing above versus below the median of environmental exposure stratified by race/ethnicity in Fresno County, 2009–2012 (N = 53,843)

From: Environmental pollution and social factors as contributors to preterm birth in Fresno County

Environmental Exposure White non-Hispanic Non-White*, Non-Hispanic Hispanic
<  37 weeks ≥37 weeks cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) <  37 weeks ≥37 weeks cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI) <  37 weeks ≥37 weeks cOR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Sample 773 9847    1081 9840    2706 29,596   
Exposures Score
    < 50th 446 (57.7) 5952 (60.4) Reference Reference 363 (33.6) 3676 (37.4) Reference Reference 1287 (47.6) 14,833 (50.1) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 327 (42.3) 3895 (39.6) 1.11 (0.96, 1.28) 1.08 (0.93, 1.24) 718 (66.4) 6164 (62.6) 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) 1.08 (0.94, 1.22) 1419 (52.4) 14,763 (49.9) 1.10 (1.02, 1.18) 1.10 (1.02, 1.19)
 Ozone
    < 50th 298 (38.6) 3527 (35.8) Reference Reference 467 (43.2) 4402 (44.7) Reference Reference 1493 (55.2) 15,886 (53.7) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 466 (60.3) 6149 (62.5) 0.90 (0.78, 1.05) 0.90 (0.78, 1.04) 611 (56.5) 5377 (54.6) 1.06 (0.94, 1.20) 1.07 (0.95, 1.21) 1192 (44.1) 13,325 (45.0) 0.96 (0.89, 1.03) 0.97 (0.89, 1.04)
 Pesticides
    < 50th 456 (59.0) 5849 (59.4) Reference Reference 680 (62.9) 6035 (61.3) Reference Reference 1127 (41.7) 12,679 (42.8) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 317 (41.0) 3998 (40.6) 1.02 (0.88, 1.17) 1.03 (0.89, 1.19) 401 (37.1) 3805 (38.7) 0.94 (0.83, 1.07) 0.96 (0.84, 1.08) 1579 (58.4) 16,917 (57.2) 1.05 (0.97, 1.13) 1.03 (0.95, 1.11)
 PM2.5
    < 50th 526 (68.1) 7053 (71.6) Reference Reference 502 (46.4) 4926 (50.1) Reference Reference 989 (36.6) 11,714 (39.6) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 237 (30.7) 2658 (27.0) 1.18 (1.01, 1.38) 1.14 (0.97, 1.33) 558 (51.6) 4627 (47.0) 1.16 (1.03, 1.31) 1.10 (0.97, 1.24) 1591 (58.8) 16,493 (55.7) 1.13 (1.04, 1.22) 1.11 (1.02, 1.20)
 Diesel PM
    < 50th 391 (50.6) 5351 (54.3) Reference Reference 363 (33.6) 3891 (39.5) Reference Reference 1393 (51.5) 15,511 (52.4) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 382 (49.4) 4496 (45.7) 1.15 (1.00, 1.32) 1.10 (0.95, 1.27) 718 (66.4) 5949 (60.5) 1.26 (1.11, 1.43) 1.16 (1.02, 1.32) 1313 (48.5) 14,085 (47.6) 1.03 (0.96, 1.12) 1.03 (0.96, 1.12)
 Toxic Release
    < 50th 505 (65.3) 6961 (70.7) Reference Reference 381 (35.3) 4085 (41.5) Reference Reference 1164 (43.0) 13,451 (45.5) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 268 (34.7) 2886 (29.3) 1.26 (1.08, 1.46) 1.20 (1.03, 1.40) 700 (64.8) 5755 (58.5) 1.27 (1.12, 1.44) 1.17 (1.03, 1.33) 1542 (57.0) 16,145 (54.6) 1.09 (1.01, 1.18) 1.09 (1.01, 1.17)
 Traffic
    < 50th 402 (52.0) 5334 (54.2) Reference Reference 378 (35.0) 3960 (40.2) Reference Reference 1432 (52.9) 15,513 (52.4) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 371 (48.0) 4513 (45.8) 1.08 (0.94, 1.25) 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) 703 (65.0) 5880 (59.8) 1.23 (1.08, 1.39) 1.15 (1.01, 1.31) 1274 (47.1) 14,083 (47.60 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.99 (0.91, 1.07)
 Drinking Water
    < 50th 158 (20.4) 1953 (19.8) Reference Reference 98 (9.1) 980 (10.0) Reference Reference 289 (10.7) 3643 (12.3) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 615 (79.6) 7894 (80.2) 0.97 (0.81, 1.15) 0.95 (0.80, 1.13) 983 (90.9) 8860 (90.0) 1.10 (0.89, 1.35) 1.00 (0.81, 1.24) 2417 (89.3) 25,953 (87.7) 1.16 (1.03, 1.31) 1.15 (1.02, 1.30)
  Arsenic
    < 50th 225 (29.1) 2843 (28.9) Reference Reference 130 (12.0) 1471 (15.0) Reference Reference 372 (13.8) 4383 (14.8) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 548 (70.9) 7004 (71.3) 0.99 (0.85, 1.16) 0.97 (0.83, 1.14) 951 (88.0) 8369 (85.1) 1.26 (1.05, 1.51) 1.13 (0.94, 1.36) 2334 (86.3) 25,213 (85.2) 1.08 (0.97, 1.21) 1.07 (0.96, 1.19)
  Cadmium
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
  1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
    < 50th 249 (32.2) 3094 (31.4) Reference Reference 313 (39.0) 2891 (29.4) Reference Reference 1021 (37.7) 11,039 (37.3) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 518 (67.0) 6640 (67.4) 0.97 (0.84, 1.13) 0.97 (0.83, 1.13) 766 (70.9) 6909 (70.2) 1.02 (0.90, 1.17) 1.00 (0.87, 1.14) 1664 (61.5) 18,183 (61.4) 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 1.00 (0.92, 1.08)
  Hexavalent Chromium
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
  Lead
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
  Nitrate
    < 50th 444 (57.4) 5792 (58.8) Reference Reference 430 (39.8) 4435 (45.1) Reference Reference 1371 (50.7) 14,513 (49.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 329 (42.6) 4055 (41.2) 1.05 (0.91, 1.22) 1.02 (0.89, 1.18) 651 (60.2) 5405 (54.9) 1.22 (1.08, 1.37) 1.12 (1.00, 1.27) 1335 (49.3) 15,083 (51.0) 0.94 (0.87, 1.02) 0.94 (0.87, 1.01)
  Perchlorate
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
  Trichloroethylene (TCE)
    < 50th 434 (556.1) 5472 (55.6) Reference Reference 387 (35.8) 3949 (40.1) Reference Reference 1397 (51.6) 15,300 (51.7) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 339 (43.9) 4375 (44.4) 0.98 (0.85, 1.13) 0.95 (0.82, 1.10) 694 (64.2) 5891 (59.9) 1.18 (1.04, 1.34) 1.07 (0.94, 1.22) 1309 (48.4) 14,296 (48.3) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
  Trihalomethane (THM)
    < 50th 303 (39.2) 3904 (39.7) Reference Reference 389 (36.0) 3591 (36.5) Reference Reference 1312 (48.5) 13,936 (47.1) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 470 (60.8) 5943 (60.4) 1.02 (0.88, 1.18) 1.01 (0.87, 1.16) 692 (64.0) 6249 (63.5) 1.02 (0.90, 1.15) 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 1394 (51.5) 15,660 (52.9) 0.95 (0.88, 1.02) 0.95 (0.88, 1.02)
  Uranium
    < 50th 121 (15.7) 1781 (18.1) Reference Reference 130 (12.0) 1304 (13.3) Reference Reference 530 (19.6) 6251 (21.1) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 584 (75.6) 7293 (74.1) 1.17 (0.96, 1.42) 1.17 (0.96, 1.42) 931 (86.1) 8222 (83.6) 1.12 (0.93, 1.35) 1.07 (0.89, 1.29) 2132 (78.8) 22,896 (77.4) 1.09 (0.99, 1.20) 1.10 (1.00, 1.21)
  Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)Violations
    < 50th 451 (58.3) 5704 (57.9) Reference Reference 429 (39.7) 4234 (43.0) Reference Reference 1357 (50.2) 14,637 (49.5) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 322 (41.7) 4143 (42.1) 0.98 (0.85, 1.14) 0.95 (0.83, 1.11) 652 (60.3) 5606 (57.0) 1.13 (1.00, 1.28) 1.03 (0.91, 1.17) 1349 (49.9) 14,959 (50.5) 0.98 (0.90, 1.05) 0.97 (0.90, 1.04)
  Total coliform rule (TCR) Violations
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
Environmental Effects Score
    < 50th 444 (57.4) 5779 (58.7) Reference Reference 643 (59.5) 5668 (57.6) Reference Reference 1203 (44.5) 13,007 (44.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 329 (42.6) 4068 (41.3) 1.05 (0.91, 1.21) 1.04 (0.90, 1.20) 438 (40.5) 4172 (42.4) 0.93 (0.83, 1.05) 0.92 (0.81, 1.04) 1503 (55.5) 16,589 (56.1) 0.98 (0.91, 1.06) 0.97 (0.89, 1.04)
 Cleanup Sites
    < 50th 404 (52.3) 5228 (53.1) Reference Reference 584 (54.1) 5144 (52.3) Reference Reference 1318 (48.7) 14,232 (48.1) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 369 (47.7) 4619 (46.9) 1.03 (0.90, 1.19) 1.03 (0.90, 1.19) 496 (45.9) 4696 (47.7) 0.94 (0.83, 1.05) 0.93 (0.83, 1.05) 1388 (51.3) 15,364 (51.9) 0.98 (0.91, 1.05) 0.97 (0.90, 1.05)
 Groundwater Threats
    < 50th 440 (56.9) 5861 (59.5) Reference Reference 619 (57.3) 5456 (55.5) Reference Reference 1204 (44.5) 13,290 (44.9) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 333 (43.1) 3986 (40.5) 1.10 (0.96, 1.27) 1.09 (0.95, 1.26) 462 (42.7) 4384 (44.6) 0.94 (0.83, 1.06) 0.92 (0.81, 1.04) 1502 (55.5) 16,306 (55.1) 1.02 (0.94, 1.10) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
 Hazardous Waste
    < 50th 437 (56.5) 5951 (60.4) Reference Reference 592 (54.8) 5170 (52.5) Reference Reference 1234 (45.6) 13,504 (45.6) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 336 (43.5) 3896 (39.6) 1.16 (1.01, 1.34) 1.12 (0.97, 1.30) 489 (45.2) 4670 (47.5) 0.92 (0.82, 1.04) 0.90 (0.80, 1.02) 1472 (54.4) 16,092 (54.4) 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) 1.00 (0.92, 1.07)
 Impaired Water Bodies
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
 Solid Waste
    < 50th 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 773 (100.0) 9847 (100.0) NC NC 1081 (100.0) 9840 (100.0) NC NC 2706 (100.0) 29,596 (100.0) NC NC
Pollution Burden Score
    < 50th 474 (61.3) 6263 (63.6) Reference Reference 515 (47.6) 4827 (49.1) Reference Reference 1218 (45.0) 13,593 (45.9) Reference Reference
    ≥ 50th 299 (38.7) 3584 (36.4) 1.09 (0.95, 1.26) 1.08 (0.93, 1.25) 566 (52.4) 5013 (51.0) 1.05 (0.93, 1.19) 1.00 (0.98, 1.12) 1488 (55.0) 16,003 (54.1) 1.03 (0.96, 1.12) 1.03 (0.95, 1.11)
  1. NC Not Calculated, cOR crude odds ratio, aOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. *Asian, African-American, Other
  3. Adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, age, education, payment for delivery