Skip to main content

Table 2 Distribution of SG-corrected phthalate metabolite concentrations (μg/L) in 636 urine samples collected from 198 pregnancies (201 mother-child pairs), the molar sum (μmol/L) of DEHP metabolites (ΣDEHP = MEHP + MEHHP + MEOHP + MECPP) and specific gravity (SG)

From: Prenatal exposure to phthalates and autism spectrum disorder in the MARBLES study

   LOD (μg/L) % detect All children (n = 208) TD (n = 109) ASD (n = 46) Non-TD (n = 53) ASD versus TD a Non-TD versus TD a
Percentiles Percentiles Percentiles Percentiles
5 50 95 5 50 95 5 50 95 5 50 95
DEP MEP 1.2 100 5.5 22.0 193.5 5.5 21.7 173.3 6.1 20.1 181.8 5.5 25.7 195.8 0.61 0.25
DiBP MiBP 0.8 98 1.9 7.1 23.3 2.3 7.4 24.2 1.7 6.0 19.1 1.9 7.3 23.2 0.00 0.94
MHiBP 0.4 97 0.8 2.5 8.5 1.0 2.5 9.4 0.6 2.2 5.6 0.8 2.6 8.5 0.01 0.70
DnBP MBP b 0.4 99 3.4 12.1 40.9 3.8 12.3 37.4 2.4 11.2 48.1 3.5 12.4 44.0 0.21 0.73
MHBP 0.4 82 <LOD 1.1 3.7 <LOD 1.1 3.5 <LOD 1.0 3.5 <LOD 1.1 4.3 0.25 0.34
BBP MBzP 0.3 99 1.2 6.2 33.4 1.2 6.1 27.2 0.7 5.7 41.1 1.5 7.8 36.5 0.82 0.01
DEHP MEHP 0.8 83 <LOD 2.5 25.7 <LOD 2.6 25.2 <LOD 2.2 18.0 <LOD 2.7 33.9 0.00 0.32
MEHHP 0.4 100 2.5 11.3 105.9 3.2 11.7 108.1 1.4 9.6 70.4 2.4 11.8 119.3 0.00 0.44
MEOHP 0.2 100 2.0 9.1 79.1 2.8 9.4 84.0 1.3 7.4 52.1 1.8 10.0 84.4 0.00 0.90
MECPP 0.4 100 5.2 17.7 152.4 6.9 17.7 169.6 4.0 16.3 90.9 4.2 19.9 145.2 0.00 0.85
DnOP MCPP c 0.4 92 0.5 1.7 13.1 0.5 1.7 13.0 0.4 1.4 6.0 0.5 1.9 17.9 0.01 0.16
DNP MNP 0.9 50 <LOD 1.1 8.1 <LOD 1.1 7.1 <LOD 0.9 5.2 <LOD 1.2 14.1 0.05 0.15
MCOP 0.3 100 2.8 12.6 144.7 3.0 12.5 146.9 3.1 10.9 121.3 2.8 15.4 149.9 0.25 0.33
DDP MCNP 0.2 100 0.8 2.6 22.9 0.8 2.6 15.4 0.7 2.3 18.0 0.9 2.9 34.5 0.38 0.12
ΣDEHP 0.05 0.17 1.48 0.06 0.17 1.51 0.03 0.14 0.90 0.04 0.19 1.53 0.00 0.04
Specific gravity 1.005 1.012 1.023 1.004 1.012 1.023 1.005 1.012 1.023 1.005 1.013 1.024 0.35 0.99
  1. aP-value from the Wilcoxon rank-sum test of the null hypothesis that a randomly chosen value from members of one group is as likely to be greater than as to be less than a randomly chosen value from members of the comparison group. b MBP is also a minor metabolite of BBP. c MCPP is also a minor metabolite of DnBP and a non-specific metabolite of several high molecular weight phthalates
  2. Abbreviation: LOD Limit of detection, DEP Diethyl phthalate, DiBP Di-isobutyl phthalate, DnBP Di-n-butyl phthalate, BBP Benzyl butyl phthalate, DEHP Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, DnOP Di-n-octyl phthalate, DNP Di-isononyl phthalate, DDP Di-isodecyl phthalate, MEP Monoethyl phthalate, MiBP Mono-isobutyl phthalate, MHiBP Monohydroxy-isobutyl phthalate, MBP Mono-n-butyl phthalate, MHBP Monohydroxy-n-butyl phthalate, MBzP Monobenzyl phthalate, MEHP Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHHP Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, MEOHP Mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, MECPP Mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, MCPP Mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, MNP Mono-isononyl phthalate, MCOP Mono-carboxyisooctyl phthalate, MCNP Mono-carboxyisononyl phthalate