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Table 4 Relative risk ratios (RRR) from multinomial logistic regression and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ASD and Non-TD (versus TD) in relation to phthalate metabolite concentrations (μg/L) during mid- to late pregnancy among mothers who took prenatal vitamins during the first month of pregnancy and those who did not

From: Prenatal exposure to phthalates and autism spectrum disorder in the MARBLES study

  Prenatal vitamin use (n = 105; TD = 61, ASD = 15, Non-TD = 29) No prenatal vitamin use (n = 85; TD = 36, ASD = 26, Non-TD = 23) P-value for interaction c
RRR a 95% CI RRR a 95% CI
ASD versus TD
 MEP 1.88 (0.82, 4.27) 0.77 (0.42, 1.37) 0.12
 MiBP 0.44 (0.21, 0.88)* 0.71 (0.32, 1.51) 0.52
 MHiBP 0.52 (0.22, 1.20) 0.61 (0.27, 1.35) 0.97
 MBP 0.48 (0.17, 1.30) 0.90 (0.35, 2.26) 0.33
 MHBP 0.53 (0.18, 1.56) 0.87 (0.31, 2.36) 0.43
 MBzP 0.85 (0.41, 1.73) 0.69 (0.37, 1.30) 0.97
 MCPP 0.41 (0.20, 0.83)* 1.33 (0.60, 2.93) 0.02
 MCOP 0.49 (0.27, 0.88)* 1.17 (0.66, 2.05) 0.08
 MCNP 0.85 (0.50, 1.42) 1.16 (0.55, 2.43) 0.47
 ΣDEHP b 0.51 (0.19, 1.36) 1.14 (0.50, 2.56) 0.12
Non-TD versus TD
 MEP 1.53 (0.97, 2.41)# 1.28 (0.76, 2.14) 0.79
 MiBP 1.18 (0.51, 2.70) 1.39 (0.68, 2.83) 0.84
 MHiBP 1.20 (0.45, 3.16) 1.24 (0.61, 2.50) 1.00
 MBP 1.48 (0.63, 3.46) 1.86 (0.75, 4.61) 0.66
 MHBP 1.38 (0.57, 3.32) 1.87 (0.70, 4.97) 0.72
 MBzP 1.47 (0.82, 2.62) 1.16 (0.65, 2.07) 0.74
 MCPP 0.93 (0.54, 1.57) 5.09 (2.05, 12.6)* 0.00
 MCOP 0.99 (0.58, 1.66) 1.86 (1.01, 3.39)* 0.11
 MCNP 0.88 (0.53, 1.46) 3.67 (1.80, 7.48)* 0.00
 ΣDEHP b 1.26 (0.72, 2.19) 1.76 (0.84, 3.65) 0.30
  1. aAdjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, year of birth (linear and squared terms), and homeownership
  2. bDue to high correlations among DEHP metabolites (r = 0.84–0.99), the molar sum of DEHP metabolites was only examined (ΣDEHP, μmol/L)
  3. cP-value for interaction from the separate regression models
  4. *p-value < 0.05, # p-value < 0.10
  5. Note: MNP was excluded from this table because approximately 50% of samples had detectable concentrations. See Table 2 for abbreviations