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Table 3 Risk factors for self-reported ocular, nasal, pulmonary and general symptoms from children questionnaires: estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from multivariable logistic ridge regression models

From: Associations of greenness, greyness and air pollution exposure with children’s health: a cross-sectional study in Southern Italy

  Ocular symptoms Nasal symptoms Pulmonary symptoms General symptoms
  Adjusted* OR [95% CI] Adjusted* OR [95% CI] Adjusted* OR [95% CI] Adjusted* OR [95% CI]
NDVI > 0.15 (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
NDVI ≤0.15 (1st quartile) 1.17 [0.88–1.54] 1.47 [1.07–2.03] 0.98 [0.79–1.21] 0.99 [0.80–1.23]
DUF (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
CUF 1.49 [1.10–2.03] 1.11 [0.73–1.70] 0.97 [0.75–1.25] 1.18 [1.00–1.48]
No RSG (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
RSG (300-m buffer) 0.98 [0.76–1.26] 1.16 [0.86–1.55] 0.98 [0.79–1.21] 1.03 [0.84–1.28]
HTRs > 200 m (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
HTRs≤200 m 1.68 [1.31–2.17] 1.49 [1.12–1.98] 0.91 [0.75–1.10] 1.12 [0.92–1.36]
NO2 < 60 μg/m3 (reference) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
NO2 ≥ 60 μg/m3 (4th quartile) 1.13 [0.85–1.51] 1.12 [0.81–1.55] 1.04 [0.84–1.29] 1.28 [1.10–1.48]
  1. Definition of abbreviations: NDVI Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, DUF Discontinuous Urban Fabric, CUF Continuous Urban Fabric, RSG Residential Surrounding Greyness, HTRs High traffic roads, NO2 Nitrogen dioxide, FSES Family’s Socio-Economic Status. Significant effects are in bold. Values represent odds ratios, with 95% confidence intervals shown in parentheses. *Accounting for gender, age, FSES, atopy, doctor diagnosed asthma, parental history of allergy and preterm born. Reference group: Female, NDVI > 0.15; Discontinuous Urban Fabric, No RSG, HTR > 200 m, NO2 < 60 μg, FSES > 49, no sensitization, no asthma, no parental history of allergy and term born