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Table 1 Description of the studies included in the review

From: The evidence of human exposure to glyphosate: a review

Citation number, Author, year Country Year of sampling Subjects Number of subjects Lab methods Type of sample LOD glyphosate LOD AMPA Glyphosate Results AMPA Results
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE
 [11] Acquavella, 2004a US (South Carolina, Minnesota) NR Farms families on application day and 3 days later 48 farmers, 48 spouses, 79 children (4–18 years old) HPLC Urine 1 μg/L NR Farmers geometric mean ± SD: 3.2 ± 6.4 μg/L (range < 1–233) on application day; 1.0 ± 3.6 (< 1–68) μg/L on day 3. Less than 25% of spouses or children had detectable values NR
 [12] Curwin, 2007 US (Iowa) 2001 Farm households 24 fathers, 24 mothers, 66 children FCMIA Urine 0.9 μg/L NR Adjusted geometric mean, farm fathers: 1.6 μg/L (1.1, 2.4); farm mothers: 1.1 μg/L (0.71, 1.8); farm children: 1.9 μg/L (1.3, 2.5) NR
 [13] Jauhiainen, 1991 Finland 1988 Forest workers sprayed a 8% Roundup containing solution for 6 h/day for 1 week 5 GC with a 63Ni-electron capture detector Urine 100 μg/L 50 μg/L Urine samples remained < LOD for G One urine sample further quantified had 85 μg/L glyphosate Urine samples remained <LOD for AMPA
 [15] Mesnage, 2012 France NR Farmer and his family, using glyphosate based herbicide 5 LC-MS Urine 1 μg/L NR Concentration of 9.5 μg/L after spraying in the farmer, 2 μg/L 2 days later; 2 μg/L was also measured in one child 2 days after spraying. The mother and 2 other children had no detectable levels NR
 [14] Connolly, 2017 Ireland 2015 Amenity horticulturalists, before and after spraying 17 males, 1 female LC MS-MS Urine 0.5 μg/L NR Pre-spraying mean ± SD: 0.71 ± 0.92; post-spraying: 1.35 ± 2.18 μg/L NR
 [16] Connolly, 2018b Ireland 2016–2017 Amenity horticulturists, before and after spraying and peak samples 18 males, 2 females LC MS-MS Urine LOQ: 0.5 μg/L NR Pre-spraying mean (SD): 1.08 (1.20) μg/L;Post spraying: 1.72 (1.53) μg/L;
Peak sample: 2.53 (1.89) μg/L
NR
 [17] Rendón-von Osten, 2017 Mexico NR Farmers 76 ELISA Urine 0.05 μg/L (in water) NR Mean ± SD in farming areas: 0.26 ± 0.23 μg/L (median: 0.28) NR
 [18] Jayasumana, 2015 Sri Lanka NR Healthy farmers from areas with chronic endemic kidney disease 10 ELISA Urine 0.6 μg/L NR Median: 73.5 (range: 40.2- > 80) μg/L NR
TOTAL (n = 7)     403       
GENERAL POPULATION
 [12] Curwin, 2007 US (Iowa) 2001 Non-farm households 23 fathers, 24 mothers, 51 children FCMIA Urine 0.9 μg/L NR Adjusted geometric mean, non farm fathers: 1.5 μg/L (1.2, 2.0); non farm mothers: 1.2 μg/L (0.91, 1.6); non-farm children: 2.5 μg/L (2.1, 3.1), range: 0.1–9.4; 65% of non farm mothers and 88% of non-farming children ≥LOD NR
 [21] McGuire, 2016a US, (Washington and Idaho) 2014–2015 Lactating women> 18 years old 41 women (41 milk; 40 urine) LC-MS Milk, urine Milk: 1.0 μg/L; Urine:0.02 μg/L Milk: 1.0 μg/L; Urine:0.03 μg/L Milk: G < LOD. Urine: G mean: 0.28 ± 0.38 μg/L, G detectable in 37/40 urine
No statistically significant differences between living in urban or suburban area, or eating organic or conventional
Milk: AMPA<LOD
Urine: AMPA mean: 0.30 ± 0.33 μg/L.
 [22] Aris, 2011 Canada NR Pregnant and non pregnant women, similar in age and BMI 30 pregnant, 39 non pregnant women, 30 umbilical cords GC-MS Maternal and umbilical cord serum 15 μg/L 10 μg/L G not detected in pregnant women or umbilical cord. Non pregnant women: mean 73.6 ± 28.2 μg/L. AMPA not detected in any of the samples
 [23] Parvez, 2018 US (Indiana) 2015–2016 Pregnant women age 18–39 years 71 LC-MS-MS Urine and drinking water Urine: 0.1 μg/LWater: 0.2 μg/L NR Urine: mean (SD) 3.40 (±1.24) μg/L. G not detected in drinking water NR
 [19] Connolly, 2018a Ireland 2017 Irish adults over the age of 18 without specific dietary habits; occupation did not involve use of pesticides 50 LC-MS-MS Urine 0.5 μg/L NR 47 samples were tested with urinary creatinine between < 3.0 or > 30 nmol/L. 20% of samples had G levels > LOD. Median of samples with G levels above the LOD (Range): 0.87 (0.80–1.35) μg/L. NR
 [24] Knudsen, 2017 Denmark 2011–2012 Children 6–11 years and their mothers in rural and urban communities 13 mothers, 14 children ELISA Urine 2.5 ppbb NR Children mean: 1.96 (range: 0.85–3.31) μg/L; mothers mean: 1.28 (range: 0.49–3.22) μg/L NR
 [25] Krüger 2015c Germany 2009 NR 2009 ELISA Urine 0.0751 μg/L NR Mean: 1.08 μg/Ld, maximum value: 4.2 μg/L. Highest concentration (1.55 μg/L) in 0–19 years and lowest concentration (0.77 μg/L) in > 70 years old. NR
 [26] Krüger, 2014 Germany NR Individuals with conventional or organic diet 99 conventional diet; 41 organic diet GC-MS Urine NR NR Urinary level: 1.8 μg/L d; subjects on conventional diet significantly higher than subjects using organic food, whose urinary values were around 0.5 μg/Ld NR
 [27] Conrad, 2017 Germany 2001–2015 Individuals aged 20 to 29 years 399 GC-MS-MS Urine LOQ: 0.1 μg/L LOQ: 0.1 μg/L G: 127 samples (31.8%) > LOD; Males had the highest levels AMPA: 160 (40.1%) > LOD.
 [28] Hoppe, 2013 18 European countries 2013 Volunteers 182 GC-MS-MS Urine LOQ: 0.15 μg/L LOQ: 0.15 μg/L 44% of samples > G LOQ; Highest G concentration: 1.8 μg/L (Latvia 36% > LOQ AMPA;) highest AMPA concentration: 2.6 μg/L (Croatia)
 [17] Rendón-von Osten, 2017 Mexico NR Fishermen in urban area 8 ELISA Urine 0.05 μg/L (in water) NR Mean ± SD in urban areas: 0.16 ± 0.1 μg/L (median: 0.20) NR
 [29] Varona, 2009 Colombia 2006 Individuals living in areas treated with aerially administered glyphosate 112 GC with electron micro-capture detector Urine 0.5 μg/L 1.0 μg/L G:7.6 ± 18.6 μg/L (Mean ± SD; range: 0–130 μg/L); 4/42 subjects with quantifiable G levels had quantifiable AMPA levels: mean G: 58.8 μg/L (range: 28–130 μg/L) AMPA: 1.6 ± 8.4 μg/L (range: 0–56 μg/L)
 [18] Jayasumana, 2015 Sri Lanka NR Healthy non-farmers from areas without chronic endemic kidney disease 10 ELISA Urine 0.6 μg/L NR Median: 3.3 (1.2–5.5) μg/L NR
 [20] Kongtip, 2017 Thailand 2011 Pregnant women age 19–35 years who delivered a baby in participating hospital 82 HPLC Maternal and umbilical cord serum 0.4 μg/L NR Maternal serum median: 17.5 (range 0.2–189.1) μg/L; Umbilical cord serum: 0.2 (range 0.2–94.9) μg/L
46.3% maternal serum samples < LOD, 50.7% of umbilical cord serum samples < LOD
NR
TOTAL (n = 14)     3298       
  1. Note: AMPA aminomethylphosphonic acid, ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, FCMIA Fluorescence covalent microbead immunoassay, G Glyphosate, GC Gas chromatography, HPLC High-performance liquid chromatography, LC Liquid chromatography, LOD limit of detection, MS mass spectrometry, MS/ MS tandem mass spectrometry, NR not reported
  2. aSponsored by Monsanto
  3. bFrom manufacturer’s protocol (ppb = parts-per-billion, 10− 9)
  4. cPartially overlaps with Krüger, 2014
  5. dValues manually extracted from figures of the paper