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Table 1 Profiles of the mother-newborn pairs in this study (n = 263)

From: Maternal urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and birth outcomes in Taiyuan, China

Variables Mean ± SD or N (%)
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years) 27.3 ± 4.2
 BMI (kg/m2) 27.7 ± 3.2
 Parity (n > 1) 72 (27.4%)
 Education status
  Middle school and below 84 (31.9%)
  High school 62 (23.6%)
  College and above 117 (44.5%)
aEconomic status
  Below poverty line 61 (23.2%)
  Above poverty line 202 (76.8%)
 Eating grilled meat (yes) 146 (55.5%)
 Passive smoking (yes) 151 (57.4%)
 Heating type (self-provided) 65 (24.7%)
 Cooking during pregnancy (yes) 117 (44.5%)
 *Arterial traffic (<  35 m) 150 (57.0%)
bUrinary phenol (μg/mL) 3.7 (1.7, 8.7)
Newborn characteristics
 Gender (female) 118 (44.9%)
 Birth weight (BW) (g) 3397.2 ± 429.8
 Birth length (BL) (cm) 50.7 ± 1.9
 Birth head circumference (BHC) (cm) 34.4 ± 1.4
 Gestational age (days) 278.7 ± 7.6
 Ponderal index (PI) (g/cm3) 2.6 ± 0.3
 Cephalization index (CI) (g/cm) 102.7 ± 11.2
bCord blood lead (ng/mL) 24.7 (19.6, 31.2)
  1. Continual variable: Mean ± SD; Categorical variable: N and %
  2. *Arterial traffic refers to the distance between the residence and the main roads
  3. aThe national standard poverty line is 15,607 yuan/year in Taiyuan city; bMedian (P25, P75)