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Table 3 Birth outcomes of newborns stratified by the four maternal urinary PAH metabolites

From: Maternal urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and birth outcomes in Taiyuan, China

Group N BW BL BHC PI CI
2-OH NAP (μg/g Cr)
 Low (<  4.03) 67 3484.7 50.9 34.4 2.6 100.1
 Middle (4.03–9.41) 130 3385.1 50.6 34.5 2.6 103.3
 High (≥ 9.41) 66 3332.2 50.5 34.3 2.6 104.4
  P for trend   0.049 0.301 0.525 0.305 0.038
2-OH FLU (μg/g Cr)
 Low (<  2.23) 66 3488.4 51.0 34.4 2.6 99.9
 Middle (2.23–5.40) 131 3396.0 50.7 34.5 2.6 102.8
 High (≥ 5.40) 66 3308.3 50.3 34.4 2.6 105.5
  P for trend   0.060 0.118 0.923 0.805 0.027
9-OH PHE (μg/g Cr)
 Low (<  1.46) 66 3372.6 50.6 34.5 2.6 103.3
 Middle (1.46–4.68) 131 3392.1 50.8 34.4 2.6 102.7
 High (≥ 4.68) 66 3431.9 50.5 34.4 2.7 102.3
  P for trend   0.567 0.699 0.866 0.404 0.708
1-OH PYR (μg/g Cr)
 Low (<  0.90) 66 3401.6 50.1 34.5 2.7 102.9
 Middle (0.90–3.03) 131 3362.2 50.8 34.4 2.6 103.7
 High (≥ 3.03) 66 3462.2 50.9 34.4 2.6 100.8
  P for trend   0.550 0.108 0.887 0.218 0.439
  1. Adjusted by parity, maternal BMI, maternal age, gender of newborn, gestational age, eating grilled meat, passive smoking, and levels of the other three PAH metabolites, urinary phenol, and cord blood lead. P-value < 0.05 was marked in bold