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Table 4 Associations between four PAH metabolites and birth outcomes by multiple linear regression in different models

From: Maternal urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and birth outcomes in Taiyuan, China

Model Birth outcomes β (p)
2-OH NAP 2-OH FLU 9-OH PHE 1-OH PYR
Model 1 BW −73.66 (0.035) −78.83 (0.038) −45.04 (0.172) −46.39 (0.109)
BL −0.19 (0.217) 0.06 (0.716) 0.07 (0.636) 0.22 (0.082)
BHC − 0.09 (0.401) − 0.08 (0.503) − 0.11 (0.312) − 0.04 (0.675)
PI − 0.03 (0.194) − 0.08 (0.004) − 0.05 (0.018) − 0.08 (0.001)
CI 2.18 (0.017) 2.24 (0.024) 1.20 (0.164) 1.36 (0.072)
Model 2 BW −83.14 (0.009) −82.82 (0.016) −51.20 (0.087) −45.19 (0.086)
BL −0.20 (0.180) 0.06 (0.710) 0.06 (0.681) 0.24 (0.055)
BHC −0.12 (0.239) −0.09 (0.405) − 0.13 (0.196) −0.04 (0.681)
PI −0.04 (0.120) −0.08 (0.002) − 0.06 (0.010) −0.08 (0.001)
CI 2.38 (0.005) 2.31 (0.012) 1.34 (0.095) 1.32 (0.061)
Model 3 BW −71.18 (0.055) −79.54 (0.125) 28.16 (0.584) 6.27 (0.885)
BL −0.32 (0.069) − 0.20 (0.401) −0.15 (0.540) 0.55 (0.070)
BHC −0.08 (0.506) −0.05 (0.771) − 0.16 (0.349) 0.13 (0.372)
PI −0.01 (0.858) −0.02 (0.531) 0.04 (0.294) −0.09 (0.005)
CI 2.06 (0.037) 2.18 (0.115) −1.06 (0.440) 0.06 (0.960)
Model 4 BW −71.83 (0.053) −89.69 (0.088) 38.95 (0.457) 2.54 (0.953)
BL −0.31 (0.071) −0.21 (0.399) − 0.14 (0.567) 0.55 (0.080)
BHC −0.08 (0.506) − 0.03 (0.858) − 0.18 (0.296) 0.13 (0.353)
PI −0.01 (0.831) −0.03 (0.402) 0.05 (0.211) −0.09 (0.004)
CI 2.09 (0.035) 2.55 (0.069) −1.46 (0.297) 0.19 (0.869)
  1. Model 1: unadjusted for covariates
  2. Model 2: adjusted for maternal BMI and gestational age
  3. Model 3: adjusted for potential confounding factors (parity, maternal BMI, maternal age, gender of newborn, gestational age, eating grilled meat, passive smoking, and levels of the other three PAH metabolites)
  4. Model 4: fully adjusted for potential confounding factors (parity, maternal BMI, maternal age, gender of newborn, gestational age, eating grilled meat, passive smoking, and levels of the other three PAH metabolites, urinary phenol, and cord blood lead)
  5. The bold presented a p-value less than 0.05