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Table 1 Characteristics of the subjects and baseline biomarkers measurements

From: Responses of healthy young males to fine-particle exposure are modified by exercise habits: a panel study

Characteristics/biomarkers n Mean/% (SD) Median (Range)
Age (year) 20 23 (2) 23 (18–26)
Daily Sleeping Time (hr) 20 7 (1) 7 (3–10)
Daily Working Time (hr) 20 5 (2) 5 (3–8)
Daily Outdoor Time (hr) 20 3 (2) 3 (1–6)
Breakfast before Visit
 Yes 31 24%  
 No 96 76%  
Poor Sleep Quality before Visit
 Yes 49 39%  
 No 78 61%  
Second-Hand Smoke Exposure a (Past 24-h)
 Yes 9 7%  
 No 118 93%  
Weekly Aerobic Exercise ≥2/week (Past 3-years)
 Yes 10 50%  
 No 10 50%  
Outdoor Exercise
 Yes 9 45%  
 No 11 55%  
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 20 22.4 (2.8) 23.0 (15.6–27.8)
Body Fat Rate (%) 20 18.5 (4.1) 18.0 (8.6–26.5)
FeNO (ppb) 127 17.1 (10.4) 14.0 (2.3–48.3)
IL-2 (pg/mL) 115 8.0 (0.8) 8.1 (7.2–10.3)
SBP(mmHg) 127 123 (10) 122 (104–132)
DBP(mmHg) 127 72 (7) 72 (58–80)
Ejection duration (%) 127 37 (4) 37 (27–47)
Aortic augmentation pressure (mmHg) 127 −1 (2) 0 (−7–4)
Aortic pressure index (%) 127 -2 (8) -1 (−19–13)
  1. Abbreviations: FeNO, fractional exhaled nitric oxide; IL-2, interleukin-2; SBP and DBP: peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure
  2. a it only included exposures which lasted more than 0.5 hr