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Table 1 Year in which PDP sampling for each individual neonicotinoid was initiated

From: Trends in neonicotinoid pesticide residues in food and water in the United States, 1999–2015

Year Sampling Began Neonicotinoid Total number of commodities sampled through 2015 US EPA Reference Dosea
mg/kg/day
1999 Imidacloprid 131,369 0.06
2003 Thiamethoxam 113,368 0.006
2004 Clothianidinb 92,818 0.01
2005 Dinotefuran 78,027 0.02
2005 Thiacloprid 62,960 0.004
2004 Acetamiprid 98,535 0.07
2008 Flonicamid 68,903 0.04
  1. aThe maximum daily oral dose of the neonicotinoid estimated to be without an appreciable risk of harm over a lifetime
  2. bAdditionally a metabolite of Thiamethoxam