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Table 3 Summary of Neonicotinoid Concentrations by Organic Major Commodity,1999–2015

From: Trends in neonicotinoid pesticide residues in food and water in the United States, 1999–2015

Neonicotinoid MajorCommod Total N N > LOD Detect Freq % Mean Conca (ppm) Min Conc (ppm) Max Conc (ppm) Organic commodity with max conc (year, domestic or import and country of origin)
Acetamiprid Fruits 1175 31 2.64 0.016 0.002 0.058 Cherries, frozen; imported 2015 Turkey
Vegetables 2003 13 0.65 0.14 0.0017 1.60 bSpinach; domestic 2009
Meat 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 310 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 64 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 11 0 0 0 0 0  
Clothianidin Fruits 1087 3 0.28 0.055 0.015 0.12 Grapes; domestic 2010
Vegetables 1963 5 0.25 0.071 0.003 0.21 Sweet Bell Peppers; imported 2012 Mexico
Meat 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 134 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 65 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 11 0 0 0 0 0  
Dinotefuran Fruits 994 0 0 0 0 0  
Vegetables 1264 5 0.40 0.045 0.01 0.18 Cherry Tomatoes; imported 2012 Dominican Republic
Meat 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 242 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 64 1 1.56 0.049 0.049 0.049 bRice; domestic 2014
Nuts 11 0 0 0 0 0  
Flonicamid Fruits 1024 0 0 0 0 0  
Vegetables 1681 16 0.95 0.178 0.002 1.50 Spinach; domestic 2015
Meat 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 257 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 21 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Imidacloprid Fruits 1383 13 0.94 0.027 0.002 0.095 Cherries; domestic 2007
Vegetables 2102 31 1.47 0.062 0.0002 1.50 bBroccoli; domestic 2013
Meat 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 310 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 111 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Thiacloprid Fruits 1054 27 2.56 0.043 0.006 0.098 Cherries, frozen; imported 2015 Turkey
Vegetables 1224 0 0 0 0 0  
Meat 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 189 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 15 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 0 0 0 0 0 0  
Thiamethoxam Fruits 1258 3 0.24 0.001 0.0020 0.024 Strawberries; domestic 2015
Vegetables 2180 6 0.28 0.018 0.0025 0.078 Sweet Bell Peppers; imported 2012 Mexico
Meat 23 0 0 0 0 0  
Dairy 264 0 0 0 0 0  
Grain (includes Rice) 65 0 0 0 0 0  
Nuts 11 0 0 0 0 0  
  1. aJust among samples above LOD; See Additional file 2 for LODs by year, commodity and neonicotinoid
  2. bMaximum residue concentration among all major commodities of same type