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Table 2 Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among adult World Trade Center Health Registry enrollees in 2015–16

From: Persistent mental and physical health impact of exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

  PTSD Depression
  Adult Wave 4 participants without pre-9/11 PTSD diagnosis a PTSD b at follow-up (2015–2016) Adult Wave 4 participants without pre-9/11 depression diagnosis d Depression e at follow-up (2015–2016)
Characteristic N N % (age adjusted) c N N % (age adjusted)c
Overall 34,211 4762 14.3 (13.1) 33,111 4709 15.3 (14.5)
Sex
 Male 21,214 2952 14.3 20,713 2959 15.2
 Female 12,997 1810 14.4 12,398 1750 15.4
Age on 9/11
 18–24 1689 177 10.8 1645 211 13.5
 25–44 17,920 2781 16.0 17,521 2759 16.8
 45–64 13,735 1731 13.0 13,115 1653 13.6
 65+ 867 73 9.1 830 86 12.2
Race/ethnicity
 White 23,917 2813 12.0 22,959 2910 13.5
 Black or African American 3351 556 17.2 3328 518 17.2
 Hispanic or Latino 3882 889 23.8 3809 790 22.7
 Asian 1901 280 15.8 1879 282 16.8
 Other 1160 224 20.3 1136 209 20.7
Education (at Wave 1)
 Less than high school 7188 1466 21.3 7091 1380 21.4
 At least some college 8434 1402 17.1 8277 1329 17.2
 College or higher 18,321 1847 10.4 17,479 1956 11.9
Income (at Wave 1)
 Less than $25,000 2493 614 26.1 2341 518 25.1
 $25,000 - $74,999 12,773 2111 17.1 12,361 2065 18.1
 $75,000 - $150,000 11,786 1365 11.8 11,483 1440 13.3
 $150,000 or more 3845 328 8.7 3716 338 9.6
Smoking status (at Wave 1)
 Never 19,547 2473 13.0 19,058 2408 13.6
 Former 9724 1255 13.3 9269 1268 14.7
 Current 4724 1002 21.9 4571 1002 23.7
Self identified
 Yes 25,407 3791 15.4 24,655 3633 15.8
 No 8804 971 11.4 8456 1076 13.8
Registry eligibility group
 Rescue/recovery worker 16,424 2453 15.3 15,957 2436 16.3
 Lower Manhattan area resident 4563 519 11.9 4243 544 14.2
 Lower Manhattan area worker/student 11,701 1555 13.7 11,460 1481 13.9
 Passerby 1311 200 15.7 1239 209 18.2
Dust cloud exposure
 Yes 17,568 3033 17.8 17,136 2773 17.5
 No 16,503 1707 10.6 15,838 1910 12.9
Personally witnessed trauma on 9/11
 Yes 23,132 3643 16.3 22,533 3435 16.4
 No 10,527 1034 10.1 10,053 1187 12.6
Rescue/recovery workers and volunteers
 Duration of work
 1–7 days 5589 713 13.1 5355 764 15.2
 8–30 days 5035 723 14.7 4884 716 15.5
 31–90 days 2732 422 15.9 2704 415 16.4
 >90 days 2457 533 22.4 2420 469 21.0
Date of arrival for rescue/recovery work
 9/11 on pile 2471 467 19.3 2470 377 16.2
 9/11, other site 2269 406 18.5 2236 387 18.7
 9/12–9/17 6496 1081 17.1 6362 1078 18.2
 9/18 or later 4581 441 9.9 4304 525 13.0
  1. aSelf-reported PTSD diagnosed by a clinician in 2001 or earlier, as reported on the 2015–16 Wave 4 questionnaire
  2. bDefined as a score > 44 on the 17-item, event-specific PTSD Checklist on the 2015–16 Wave 4 questionnaire
  3. cAge adjusted to the 2010 United States Census
  4. dSelf-reported depression diagnosed by a clinician in 2001 or earlier, as reported on the 2015–16 Wave 4 questionnaire
  5. eDefined as a score > 10 on the 8-item Patient Health Questionnaire on the 2015–16 Wave 4 questionnaire