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Table 5 Comparison of participants and non-participants in Wave 4

From: Persistent mental and physical health impact of exposure to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attacks

  Participants Non-Participants  
Characteristic N % N % p-value
Overall 36,864 54.6 30,640 45.4  
Sex
 Male 22,291 60.5 18,280 59.7 .03
 Female 14,573 39.5 12,360 40.3  
Age on 9/11
 <18 886 2.4 1461 4.8 <.01
 18–24 1776 4.8 2561 8.4  
 25–44 18,840 51.1 17,527 57.4  
 45–64 14,453 39.2 8082 26.5  
 65+ 891 2.4 912 3.0  
Race/ethnicity
 White 25,682 69.7 16,896 55.1 <.01
 Black or African American 3554 9.6 4539 14.8  
 Hispanic or Latino 4204 11.4 4922 16.1  
 Asian 2134 5.8 2739 8.9  
 Other 1290 3.5 1544 5.0  
Education
 Less than high school 8200 22.4 9191 30.7 <.01
 At least some college 8999 24.6 7148 23.9  
 College or higher 19,384 53.0 13,617 45.5  
Income
 Less than $25,000 2932 8.8 3938 14.8 <.01
 $25,000 - $74,999 13,644 41.1 11,725 44.2  
 $75,000 - $150,000 12,483 37.6 7892 29.8  
 $150,000 or more 4169 12.6 2976 11.2  
Smoking status
 Never 21,019 57.8 17,566 59.3 <.01
 Former 10,311 28.3 6774 22.9  
 Current 5060 13.9 5267 17.8  
Self identified
 Yes 27,684 75.1 19,840 64.8 <.01
 No 9180 24.9 10,800 35.3  
Registry eligibility group
 Rescue/recovery worker 16,976 46.7 12,602 41.8 <.01
 Lower Manhattan area resident 5361 14.8 6237 20.7  
 Area workers and school staff/students 12,600 34.7 10,000 33.2  
Passersby 1417 3.9 1310 4.4  
 Dust cloud exposure
 Yes 19,121 52.1 15,602 51.2 .02
 No 17,575 47.9 14,873 48.8  
Personally witnessed trauma on 9/11
 Yes 25,130 69.5 20,849 69.7 .63
 No 11,041 30.5 9085 30.4  
Asthma at Wave 1
 Yes 5191 14.1 4266 14.0 .69
 No 31,586 85.9 26,193 86.0  
GERS a at Wave 1
 Yes 11,202 30.5 9237 30.4 .67
 No 25,484 69.5 21,166 69.6  
PTSD b at Wave 1
 Yes 5386 15.0 5285 18.2 <.01
 No 30,629 85.1 23,690 81.8  
  1. aGastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) were defined as reported heartburn, indigestion, or reflux at the time of the Wave 1 questionnaire
  2. bPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was defined as a score > 44 on the 17-item, event-specific PTSD Checklist