Skip to main content

Table 2 Mean change and standard error (SE) in birth outcomes by quartile of energy and macronutrient intakes (n = 1057)

From: Mediating role of arsenic in the relationship between diet and pregnancy outcomes: prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 p-for-trend
GA (week)
 Energy Ref −0.38 (0.16)* −0.66 (0.16)* 0.13 (0.15) 0.458
 Protein Ref −0.18 (0.12) * −1.46 (0.15) * − 1.99 (0.14) * < 0.001
 Fat Ref −0.28 (0.12) −1.36 (0.14) * −1.70 (0.14) * < 0.001
 Carbohydrate Ref 0.46 (0.16) * 1.63 (0.14) * 1.91 (0.14) * < 0.001
 Fiber Ref −0.24 (0.14) * −1.45 (0.15) * −1.41 (0.15) * < 0.001
GWG (g/week)
 Energy Ref −0.90 (10.80) −13.95 (10.35) 5.85 (10.80) 0.892
 Protein Ref −3.60 (10.80) −49.50 (10.80) * −71.55 (9.90) * < 0.001
 Fat Ref −4.50 (10.80) −27.90 (10.80) * −54.90 (9.90) * < 0.001
 Carbohydrate Ref 27.00 (9.90) 75.15 (10.35) * 60.75 (9.45) * < 0.001
 Fiber Ref −2.25 (10.80) −45.00 (10.35) * −61.20 (10.35) * < 0.001
BW (gram)
 Energy Ref −9.05 (34.8) −15.0 (34.8) 77.7 (33.7) * 0.037
 Protein Ref −26.4 (25.9) * − 171.2 (34.7) * − 129.0 (34.2) * < 0.001
 Fat Ref −62.3 (29.5) * − 150.2 (32.5) * −94.9 (36.6) * < 0.001
 Carbohydrate Ref 79.8 (39.9) * 56.3 (34.4) * 128.2 (34.3) * < 0.001
 Fiber Ref −20.8 (29.1) * −150.8 (33.1) * −48.3 (35.6) * < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: GA, gestational age at birth; GWG, gestational weight gain; BW, birth weight
  2. 1Mean energy intake 3059.3±709.2 kcal/day, mean adjusted protein intake 167.4±55.4 g/day, mean adjusted fat intake 63.2±14.4 g/day, mean adjusted carbohydrate intake 437.9±76.2 g/day, mean adjusted fiber intake 44.8±8.5 g/day. Intakes adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method
  3. *P < 0.05, determined by analysis of variance