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Table 3 Partial regression coefficient showing change in birth outcomes per increment of 1 SD1 of total energy and macronutrient intakes (n = 1057)

From: Mediating role of arsenic in the relationship between diet and pregnancy outcomes: prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh

  Crude2 Adjusted for energy3 Fully Adjusted4
\( \widehat{\upbeta} \)(SE) P-value \( \widehat{\upbeta} \)(SE) P-value \( \widehat{\upbeta} \)(SE) P-value
GA (week)
 Energy 0.12 (0.06) 0.031 0.11 (0.06) 0.040
 Protein −0.71 (0.05) < 0.001 −0.83 (0.05) < 0.001 − 0.87 (0.06) < 0.001
 Fat −0.46 (0.01) < 0.001 − 0.65 (0.05) < 0.001 −0.58 (0.06) < 0.001
 Carbohydrate 0.57 (0.05) < 0.001 0.79 (0.05) < 0.001 0.79 (0.06) < 0.001
 Fiber −0.36 (0.06) < 0.001 −0.59 (0.05) < 0.001 − 0.49 (0.06) < 0.001
GWG (g/week)
 Energy 0.9 (3.6) 0.779 0.9 (3.6) 0.773
 Protein −26.6 (3.6) < 0.001 −29.7 (3.6) < 0.001 − 27.5 (4.5) < 0.001
 Fat −16.2 (3.6) < 0.001 −20.7 (3.6) < 0.001 − 15.8 (4.1) < 0.001
 Carbohydrate 17.1 (3.6) < 0.001 27.5 (3.6) < 0.001 23.9 (4.5) < 0.001
 Fiber −17.1 (3.6) < 0.001 −23.9 (3.6) < 0.001 −20.7 (4.1) < 0.001
BW (gram)
 Energy 19.1 (12.2) 0.117 14.2 (11.8) 0.231
 Protein −46.0 (33.4) < 0.001 − 58.7 (12.1) < 0.001 − 32.3 (14.2) 0.023
 Fat −14.8 (12.2) 0.226 −32.3 (12.2) 0.008 − 11.1 (12.9) 0.389
 Carbohydrate 43.5 (12.1) < 0.001 46.9 (12.1) < 0.001 20.2 (13.8) 0.144
 Fiber −1.45 (12.2) 0.905 −19.5 (12.2) 0.110 7.6 (13.2) 0.565
  1. Abbreviations: SD, standard deviation; GA, gestational age at birth; GWG, gestational weight gain; BW, birth weight; SE, standard error
  2. 1SD for energy 606.9 kcal/day, for protein 55.6 g/day, for fat 14.2 g/day, for carbohydrates 76.1 g/day, for fiber 8.4 g/day
  3. 2Crude model using unadjusted intake level
  4. 3Intake level adjusted for energy using the residual method
  5. 4Intake level adjusted for energy using residual method (except for energy), regression model adjusted for BMI at the time of enrollment, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, betel nut chewing, age, education level, household income level, newborn sex, birth delivery location, birth delivery type, physical activity level during pregnancy, daily hours spent cooking over an open fire