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Table 4 Partial regression coefficients showing changes in toenail arsenic concentration per increment of 1 SD of total energy and macronutrient intake1

From: Mediating role of arsenic in the relationship between diet and pregnancy outcomes: prospective birth cohort in Bangladesh

Intakes Crude3 Adjusted for energy4 Fully Adjusted5
\( \widehat{\upbeta} \)(SE) P-value \( \widehat{\upbeta} \)(SE) P-value \( \widehat{\upbeta} \)(SE) P-value
Energy 0.01 (0.03) 0.958 −0.01 (0.03) 0.770
Protein 0.37 (0.03) < 0.001 0.41 (0.03) < 0.001 0.33 (0.04) < 0.001
Fat 0.27 (0.03) < 0.001 0.33 (0.03) < 0.001 0.23 (0.04) < 0.001
Carbohydrate −0.24 (0.03) < 0.001 − 0.40 (0.03) < 0.001 −0.32 (0.04) < 0.001
Fiber 0.26 (0.03) < 0.001 0.35 (0.03) < 0.001 0.26 (0.04) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: SD, standard deviation; SE, standard error, BMI, body mass index
  2. 1SD for energy 606.9 kcal/day, for protein 55.6 g/day, for fat 14.2 g/day, for carbohydrates 76.1 g/day, for fibers 8.4 g/day
  3. 2ln-transformed toenail arsenic concentration, unit (ln(μg/g))
  4. 3Crude model
  5. 4 Intake level and ln-transformed toenail arsenic concentration adjusted for energy using the residual method (except for energy)
  6. 5Intake level and ln-transformed toenail arsenic concentration adjusted for energy using residual method (except for energy), regression model adjusted for BMI at the time of enrollment, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, betel nut chewing, age, education level, household income level, newborn sex, birth delivery location, birth delivery type, physical activity level during pregnancy, daily hours spent cooking over an open fire