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Table 3 exp(β)a of Tampon Use and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CIs) for Blood Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Biomarkers

From: Tampon use, environmental chemicals and oxidative stress in the BioCycle study

  Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
exp(β) (95% CI) exp(β) (95% CI) exp(β) (95% CI)
TBARS (nmol/mL)
 Menses 0.98 (0.93, 1.03) 0.99 (0.93, 1.05) 0.99 (0.94, 1.05)
 Early-follicular phase 0.99 (0.94, 1.04) 1.00 (0.95, 1.06) 1.01 (0.95, 1.06)
 Menstruating Week 0.99 (0.94, 1.03) 0.99 (0.94, 1.05) 1.00 (0.95, 1.05)
 Cycle 0.99 (0.94, 1.03) 1.02 (0.99, 1.07) 1.00 (0.95, 1.05)
 Cycle except menstruating week 1.02 (0.98, 1.06) 1.03 (0.99, 1.08) 1.04 (0.99, 1.08)
PON1A (μmol/min/L)
 Menses 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.03 (0.99, 1.08) 1.03 (0.99, 1.08)
 Early-follicular phase 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 1.03 (0.99, 1.08) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04)
 Menstruating Week 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.02 (0.98, 1.05) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04)
 Cycle 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03)
 Cycle except menstruating week 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03)
PON1P (μmol/min/L)
 Menses 0.87 (0.78, 0.98) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15) 1.02 (0.91, 1.15)
 Early-follicular phase 0.90 (0.81, 1.00) 1.02 (0.91, 1.14) 1.02 (0.91, 1.14)
 Menstruating Week 0.90 (0.82, 0.99) 1.01 (0.91, 1.11) 1.01 (0.91, 1.12)
 Cycle 0.91 (0.86, 0.97) 0.95 (0.90, 1.02) 0.95 (0.89, 1.02)
 Cycle except menstruating week 0.91 (0.86, 0.98) 0.96 (0.90, 1.03) 0.96 (0.90, 1.03)
Isoprostane (pg/mL)
 Menses 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) 1.04 (0.95, 1.15) 1.04 (0.95, 1.14)
 Early-follicular phase 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15)
 Menstruating Week 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) 1.05 (0.96, 1.15) 1.05 (0.96, 1.14)
 Cycle 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) 1.03 (0.96, 1.11) 1.03 (0.96, 1.11)
 Cycle except menstruating week 1.06 (0.99, 1.12) 1.02 (0.95, 1.09) 1.02 (0.95, 1.09)
CRP (mg/L)
 Menses 1.13 (0.91, 1.41) 1.10 (0.88, 1.38) 1.06 (0.85, 1.32)
 Early-follicular phase 0.93 (0.75, 1.15) 0.96 (0.78, 1.20) 0.93 (0.75, 1.16)
 Menstruating Week 0.99 (0.81, 1.22) 1.01 (0.82, 1.25) 0.98 (0.80, 1.20)
 Cycle 0.94 (0.77, 1.12) 0.95 (0.77, 1.16) 0.94 (0.76, 1.15)
 Cycle except menstruating week 0.89 (0.73, 1.10) 0.90 (0.73, 1.11) 0.90 (0.73, 1.11)
  1. aRatio of the expected geometric mean for those who used tampons over those who did not
  2. bCrude model (no covariates other than tampon use included)
  3. cBasic model including age, BMI, smoking, education, race, parity, and physical activity
  4. dExtended model additionally adjusting for birth control use and marital status