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Table 1 Maternal and reproductive outcome of dams exposed to glyphosate or Roundup Bioflow throughout pregnancy and lactation

From: The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study glyphosate-based herbicides administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on development and endocrine system

Parameter Control Glyphosate Roundup
Gestational index (%)a 100 (8/8) 100 (8/8) 100 (8/8)
Mean gestational length (day)b 22.9 23.0 23.0
Relative weight gain during pregnancy (%)d, e 33.1 ± 1.8 32.4 ± 2.2 33.2 ± 1.4
Relative weight gain during lactation (%)d, f 3.1 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 0.8
Total pups (n) delivered at PND 0g 120 115 124
Litter size (n)d, h 15 ± 1.3 14.4 ± 1.9 15.5 ± 1.7
Sex ratio at birth (%)d, i 53.6 ± 16.9 43.2 ± 9.9 45.4 ± 12.6
Mean live birth index (%)d, l 95.9 ± 9.4 93.9 ± 6.8 96.1 ± 5.8
Dams with reported stillbirths (n) 2 4 3
Stillborn (n)m 5 7 5
Survival index at PND 1 (%)n 90.8 ± 10.6 93.0 ± 8.3 91.5 ± 9.0
Survival index at PND 21 (%)n 90.0 ± 10.0 91.3 ± 8.3 88.1 ± 8.0
  1. aGestational index = (number of females with live born / number of females with evidence of pregnancy) × 100
  2. bMean gestational length = mean number of days between GD 0 (day of positive evidence of mating) and day of parturition
  3. dMean ± standard deviation
  4. eRelative weight gain during pregnancy = relative weight on the last day of pregnancy minus relative weight on the first day treatment in pregnancy, i.e. GD 6 (weight on GD 6 = 100%)
  5. fRelative weight gain during lactation = relative weight on LD 21 minus relative weight on the first day of lactation, i.e. LD 1 (weight on LD 1 = 100%)
  6. gLive and stillborn pups are considered
  7. hMean number of pups per litter at PND 0 (within 24 h from delivery)
  8. iSex ratio at birth = (no. of male offspring / no. of total offspring) × 100
  9. lLive birth index = (no. of offspring born alive / no. of offspring born) × 100
  10. mStillborn = no. of pups died in utero
  11. nSurvival index = (no. of live offspring at designated time-point / no. of pups born) × 100