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Table 2 Effects of glyphosate or Roundup Bioflow exposure on developmental landmarks and sexual characteristics of pups

From: The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study glyphosate-based herbicides administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on development and endocrine system

Parameter Control Glyphosate Roundup
Number of male pups at PND 1 58 46 53
Male pups weight at PND 1 (g)a 6.8 ± 0.5 7.1 ± 0.2 6.8 ± 0.4
Male pups weaning weight (g)a, b 50.4 ± 4.4 53.5 ± 6.0 51.8 ± 5.8
Male AGD (mm) at PND 4a, c 4.02 ± 0.49 4.26 ± 0.38** 4.34 ± 0.30**°°
Age (PND) at balano-preputial separation (BPS) 46.33 ± 1.85 46.78 ± 1.73 47.61 ± 2.77
Body weight at BPS (g) 202.50 ± 10.74 203.89 ± 16.68 207.50 ± 22.70
Number of female pups at PND 1 51 61 60
Female pups birth weight (g)a 6.4 ± 0.4 6.6 ± 0.4 6.5 ± 0.6
Female pups weaning weight (g)a, b 48.3 ± 5.1 50.4 ± 5.2 50.5 ± 5.1
Female AGD (mm) at PND 4a, c 1.70 ± 0.25 1.79 ± 0.21 1.86 ± 0.19**°°
Age (PND) at vaginal opening (VO)a 35.56 ± 1.72 35.39 ± 1.5 35.61 ± 1.14
Body weight at VO (g)a 108.33 ± 6.18 108.06 ± 7.10 109.44 ± 8.73
Age (PND) at First Estrous (FE)a, d 39.88 ± 1.25 40.13 ± 1.46 42.63 ± 3.25#
Number of days between VO and FEa 4.75 ± 0.71 5.13 ± 0.64 7.00 ± 3.78
  1. **Statistically significant (p < 0.01) with multilevel linear regression adjusted for body weight
  2. °°Statistically significant (p < 0.01) with multilevel linear regression adjusted for body weight and litter (random effect)
  3. #Statistically significant (p < 0.05) with Kruskal-Wallis’ tests
  4. aMean ± standard deviation
  5. bWeaning weight corresponds to PND 25
  6. cAGD = ano-genital distance
  7. dFirst estrous (FE) was evaluated only in females belonging to the 6 week cohort