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Table 3 Cross-sectional associations between phthalate biomarker concentrations and overweight and obesity compared to underweight/normal within the Women’s Health Initiative (N=997)

From: Urinary concentrations of phthalate biomarkers and weight change among postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study

Phthalate biomarker, ng/mL Overweight
OR (95% CI)
Obese
OR (95% CI)
Model 1a Model 2b Model 1a Model 2b
MEP
 2.80 - 33.10 ref ref ref ref
 33.20 - 67.90 0.98 (0.64-1.51) 1.01 (0.64-1.58) 0.79 (0.50-1.24) 0.71 (0.42-1.19)
 68.10 - 159.00 0.91 (0.58-1.43) 0.85 (0.53-1.37) 0.81 (0.51-1.28) 0.64 (0.38-1.08)
 161.00 - 26000.00 0.86 (0.54-1.35) 0.80 (0.50-1.28) 0.71 (0.45-1.14) 0.56 (0.33-0.96)
 P trend 0.48 0.29 0.20 0.04
MBP
 0.28 - 12.00 ref ref ref ref
 12.10 - 23.60 1.06 (0.69-1.64) 1.12 (0.72-1.77) 1.12 (0.70-1.80) 1.28 (0.75-2.17)
 23.70 - 46.70 1.05 (0.67-1.65) 1.12 (0.70-1.79) 1.37 (0.86-2.21) 1.55 (0.90-2.64)
 46.80 - 3600.00 0.82 (0.51-1.33) 0.94 (0.57-1.56) 0.89 (0.54-1.48) 1.11 (0.63-1.97)
 P trend 0.45 0.81 0.78 0.64
MHBP
 0.28 - 0.90 ref ref ref ref
 1.00 - 1.90 1.02 (0.66-1.57) 1.04 (0.66-1.64) 0.91 (0.57-1.44) 1.01 (0.60-1.69)
 2.00 - 3.90 0.86 (0.55-1.36) 0.94 (0.59-1.51) 0.94 (0.59-1.50) 1.11 (0.65-1.90)
 4.00 - 490.00 0.57 (0.36-0.91) 0.63 (0.39-1.03) 0.46 (0.28-0.75) 0.60 (0.34-1.05)
 P trend 0.02 0.07 0.004 0.10
ΣDBP, μmol/L
 0.002 - 0.065 ref ref ref ref
 0.0652 - 0.132 1.01 (0.67-1.53) 1.06 (0.69-1.63) 1.19 (0.76-1.87) 1.25 (0.76-2.07)
 0.133 - 0.264 0.89 (0.57-1.39) 0.97 (0.61-1.53) 1.22 (0.77-1.94) 1.40 (0.84-2.36)
 0.265 - 18.255 0.84 (0.52-1.37) 0.93 (0.56-1.56) 0.92 (0.55-1.54) 1.13 (0.63-2.01)
 P trend 0.45 0.76 0.86 0.56
MiBP
 0.14 - 1.00 ref ref ref ref
 1.10 - 2.10 1.13 (0.75-1.70) 1.18 (0.77-1.80) 1.26 (0.82-1.94) 1.38 (0.84-2.24)
 2.20 - 4.10 1.68 (1.08-2.62) 1.73 (1.08-2.76) 1.89 (1.19-3.00) 1.97 (1.17-3.31)
 4.20 - 212.00 1.99 (1.21-3.27) 2.27 (1.35-3.81) 1.93 (1.15-3.23) 2.30 (1.28-4.13)
 P trend 0.003 0.001 0.005 0.003
MHiBP
 0.28 - 0.40 ref ref ref ref
 0.50 - 0.80 0.92 (0.61-1.40) 0.96 (0.63-1.48) 0.97 (0.64-1.49) 0.97 (0.60-1.57)
 0.90 - 1.60 1.19 (0.76-1.85) 1.23 (0.77-1.96) 0.92 (0.57-1.46) 0.88 (0.52-1.50)
 1.70 - 91.70 1.03 (0.63-1.69) 1.21 (0.72-2.03) 0.70 (0.41-1.18) 0.86 (0.48-1.56)
 P trend 0.69 0.36 0.20 0.57
ΣDiBP, μmol/L
 0.002 - 0.0057 ref ref ref ref
 0.006 - 0.0123 0.81 (0.54-1.24) 0.87 (0.56-1.340 0.86 (0.55-1.34) 0.97 (0.59-1.61)
 0.0124 - 0.0247 1.36 (0.87-2.13) 1.44 (0.90-2.29) 1.53 (0.96-2.42) 1.61 (0.95-2.72)
 0.0248 - 1.339 1.73 (1.04-2.88) 1.99 (1.16-3.39) 1.49 (0.87-2.53) 1.88 (1.03-3.43)
 P trend 0.01 0.004 0.05 0.02
MBzP
 0.40 - 5.90 ref ref ref ref
 6.00 - 12.00 1.08 (0.71-1.65) 1.21 (0.78-1.87) 2.19 (1.37-3.50) 2.58 (1.52-4.38)
 12.10 - 22.20 0.96 (0.61-1.49) 0.93 (0.59-1.47) 1.67 (1.02-2.74) 1.52 (0.88-2.64)
 22.30 - 3590.00 1.45 (0.89-2.37) 1.58 (0.94-2.66) 2.34 (1.37-4.01) 2.73 (1.48-5.04)
 P trend 0.21 0.18 0.01 0.01
MCPP
 0.14 - 1.70 ref ref ref ref
 1.80 - 3.00 1.18 (0.77-1.81) 1.22 (0.77-1.91) 0.99 (0.62-1.58) 0.98 (0.58-1.67)
 3.10 - 5.40 1.40 (0.89-2.20) 1.52 (0.94-2.42) 1.72 (1.08-2.75) 1.86 (1.10-3.16)
 5.50 - 108.00 1.64 (0.98-2.74) 1.90 (1.10-3.27) 1.58 (0.93-2.68) 1.78 (0.97-3.28)
 P trend 0.05 0.02 0.03 0.02
MEHP
 0.35 - 0.90 ref ref ref ref
 1.00 - 1.90 1.29 (0.84-1.96) 1.45 (0.94-2.26) 1.02 (0.65-1.59) 1.03 (0.62-1.71)
 2.00 - 4.10 1.45 (0.95-2.22) 1.60 (1.02-2.51) 1.32 (0.85-2.04) 1.46 (0.89-2.42)
 4.20 - 367.00 1.43 (0.90-2.27) 1.71 (1.04-2.80) 1.17 (0.73-1.90) 1.31 (0.75-2.27)
 P trend 0.09 0.02 0.36 0.20
MEHHP
 0.60 - 9.20 ref ref ref ref
 9.30 - 17.10 1.20 (0.79-1.83) 1.26 (0.81-1.95) 1.34 (0.85-2.15) 1.22 (0.72-2.05)
 17.20 - 33.00 1.67 (1.09-2.57) 1.80 (1.14-2.83) 2.20 (1.39-3.48) 1.96 (1.17-3.30)
 33.20 - 2830.00 2.10 (1.26-3.49) 2.33 (1.36-3.98) 2.97 (1.76-5.03) 2.93 (1.62-5.31)
 P trend 0.002 0.001 <0.001 <0.001
MEOHP
 0.20 - 5.80 ref ref ref ref
 5.90 - 10.60 1.04 (0.68-1.59) 1.11 (0.71-1.72) 0.99 (0.62-1.58) 0.96 (0.57-1.62)
 10.70 - 20.40 1.72 (1.30-2.66) 1.84 (1.16-2.90) 2.05 (1.30-3.24) 1.89 (1.13-3.16)
 20.50 - 1610.00 1.80 (1.30-2.98) 2.01 (1.19-3.43) 2.19 (1.30-3.67) 2.40 (1.33-4.32)
 P trend 0.006 0.003 <0.001 0.001
MECPP
 1.10 - 12.90 ref ref ref ref
 13.00 - 22.60 1.37 (0.91-2.08) 1.45 (0.94-2.23) 1.52 (0.96-2.41) 1.35 (0.80-2.27)
 22.70 - 41.50 1.96 (1.26-3.04) 1.98 (1.24-3.16) 2.85 (1.79-4.55) 2.48 (1.46-4.19)
 41.60 - 2460.00 2.27 (1.36-3.80) 2.57 (1.49-4.43) 3.15 (1.85-5.37) 3.50 (1.90-6.45)
 P trend 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
ΣDEHP, μmol/L
 0.008 - 0.1007 ref ref ref ref
 0.1008 - 0.1827 1.43 (0.95-2.17) 1.58 (1.03-2.44) 1.28 (0.81-2.03) 1.27 (0.76-2.13)
 0.1828 - 0.341 2.22 (1.42-3.47) 2.31 (1.44-3.69) 2.69 (1.69-4.29) 2.33 (1.38-3.94)
 0.343 - 24.419 2.27 (1.35-3.82) 2.72 (1.57-4.72) 2.75 (1.61-4.67) 3.29 (1.80-6.03)
 P trend 0.001 <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
MCOP
 0.14 - 2.10 ref ref ref ref
 2.20 - 3.60 1.78 (1.18-2.67) 2.00 (1.30-3.08) 1.56 (1.00-2.43) 1.50 (0.91-2.49)
 3.70 - 6.50 2.10 (1.32-3.34) 2.06 (1.27-3.34) 2.66 (1.66-4.27) 2.38 (1.40-4.05)
 6.60 - 239.00 2.79 (1.70-4.57) 2.93 (1.74-4.92) 2.66 (1.59-4.46) 2.55 (1.42-4.58)
 P trend <0.001 <0.001 <0.001 0.001
MCNP
 0.14 - 1.50 ref ref ref ref
 1.60 - 2.60 1.43 (0.95-2.16) 1.52 (0.99-2.34) 1.63 (1.04-2.56) 1.63 (0.98-2.72)
 2.70 - 4.70 1.34 (0.86-2.11) 1.47 (0.92-2.37) 2.12 (1.33-3.39) 2.37 (1.39-4.04)
 4.80 - 91.60 2.00 (1.24-3.22) 2.18 (1.32-3.59) 2.35 (1.42-3.89) 2.64 (1.49-4.67)
 P trend 0.006 0.003 0.001 0.001
  1. Abbreviations used: CI confidence interval, MEP monoethyl phthalate, MBP monobutyl phthalate, MHBP mono-hydroxybutyl phthalate, DBP dibutyl phthalate, MiBP mono-isobutyl phthalate, phthalate MHiBP mono-hydroxyisobutyl phthalate, DiBP di-isobutyl phthalate, MBzP monobenzyl phthalate, MCPP mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, MEHP mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, MEHHP mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, MEOHP mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl), DEHP di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, MECPP mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, MCOP mono-carboxyoctyl phthalate, MCNP mono-carboxynonyl phthalate, OR odds ratio
  2. aAdjusted for creatinine
  3. bAdjusted for creatinine, age, ethnicity, alcohol use, physical activity, smoking status, healthy eating index, dietary energy intake, hormone replacement therapy use, education, income, and history of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases