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Table 3 Results of the adjusted LMMs regressing hormones versus exposure biomarkers

From: A repeated measures study of phenol, paraben and Triclocarban urinary biomarkers and circulating maternal hormones during gestation in the Puerto Rico PROTECT cohort

  CRH SHBG Testosterone Progesterone Estriol Progesterone/Estriol Ratio
2,4-DCP % Δ/IQR 5.30 (− 2.81, 14.08) 2.06 (− 1.49, 5.61) 3.26 (− 3.01, 9.94) 1.60 (− 3.42, 6.87) − 1.93 (− 7.54, 4.01) 3.58 (− 1.85, 10.16)
p 0.21 0.26 0.32 0.54 0.52 0.24
2,5-DCP % Δ/IQR 3.89 (− 3.29, 11.61) 0.96 (− 2.25, 4.17) 1.75 (− 3.85, 7.69)a − 0.46 (− 4.79, 4.07) − 2.21 (− 7.12, 2.96) 1.35 (− 3.46, 6.82)
p 0.30 0.56 0.55 0.84 0.40 0.61
BPA % Δ/IQR 3.68 (−4.21, 12.22) − 0.22 (− 3.60, 3.15) − 4.19 (− 9.64, 1.59)a − 3.50 (− 8.16, 1.39) − 2.18 (− 7.78, 3.78) −1.55 (− 6.18, 5.01)
p 0.37 0.90 0.15 0.16 0.47 0.60
BPFb % Δ/IQR 3.90 (−9.72, 19.57) − 2.97 (− 8.04, 2.11) 0.33 (−8.89, 10.49) −1.33 (− 23.9, 13.78) 3.84 (− 6.40, 15.21) − 4.65 (− 13.44, 5.05)
p 0.60 0.26 0.95 0.76 0.48 0.34
BPS % Δ/IQR −11.35 (− 18.71, − 3.33) − 0.56 (− 4.37, 3.25) 2.54 (− 3.5, 8.97) − 4.38 (− 9.49, 1.02) − 2.05 (− 8.16, 4.47) − 2.96 (− 7.85, 3.85)
p 0.008** 0.77 0.42 0.11 0.53 0.34
BP-3 % Δ/IQR − 0.04 (− 7.96, 8.57) 1.10 (− 2.61, 4.82) − 0.51 (− 6.8, 6.21) 0.46 (− 4.62, 5.81) − 0.91 (− 6.66, 5.18) 1.81 (− 3.60, 8.42)
p 0.99 0.56 0.88 0.86 0.76 0.56
TCC % Δ/IQR −3.69 (− 14.5, 8.50) − 4.54 (− 10.03, 0.94) 5.18 (− 3.4, 14.51) −3.22 (− 10.13, 4.21) 0.36 (− 7.93, 9.39) −3.75 (− 8.64, 7.7)
p 0.54 0.11 0.25 0.39 0.94 0.39
TCS % Δ/IQR 9.20 (− 0.97, 20.42) 2.81 (− 1.46, 7.08) 7.13 (− 0.60, 15.5) 2.84 (−3.2, 9.25)a 4.16 (− 3.07, 11.93)a 0.31 (− 5.8, 8.4)
p 0.08* 0.20 0.07* 0.37 0.27 0.93
EPBb % Δ/IQR 1.52 (−11.55, 16.52) −1.93 (−8.14, 4.29) 5.11 (− 4.64, 15.86) a −2.41 (− 10.62, 6.56) −1.92 (− 11.4, 8.58) − 0.77 (− 10.22, 9.67)
p 0.83 0.55 0.32 0.59 0.71 0.88
BPB % Δ/IQR −1.86 (− 10.64, 7.8) −5.27 (−9.4, − 1.14) − 6.77 (− 13.3, 0.29) −3.65 (− 9.11, 2.14) −5.18 (− 11.45, 1.52) 1.96 (− 4.9, 8.52)
p 0.70 0.01** 0.06* 0.21 0.13 0.58
MPB % Δ/IQR 5.88 (− 3.0, 15.59) −3.53 (− 7.37, 0.31) −4.41 (− 10.68, 2.3) 0.03 (−5.29, 5.64) −2.50 (− 8.6, 4.01)a 2.64 (− 3.06, 9.74)
p 0.20 0.07* 0.19 0.99 0.44 0.43
PPB % Δ/IQR 4.82 (−4.48, 15.02) −3.74 (−7.76, 0.27) − 3.54 (− 10.14, 3.54) 2.35 (− 3.55, 8.6) −0.63 (− 7.36, 6.58)a 3.65 (− 2.36, 11.66)
p 0.32 0.07* 0.32 0.44 0.86 0.31
  TSH FT4 T3 T4 T3/T4 ratio  
2,4-DCP % Δ/IQR 4.80 (−2.58, 12.74) 0.21 (−1.19, 1.60) − 1.58 (−3.58, 0.42) −0.79 (− 2.71, 1.13) −1.16 (− 4.86, 1.33)  
p 0.21 0.77 0.12 0.42 0.31  
2,5-DCP % Δ/IQR 4.63 (− 2.08, 11.79) 0.82 (−0.43, 2.07) −0.55 (− 2.36, 1.26) 0.51 (−1.22, 2.24) −1.38 (−4.64, 1.06)  
p 0.18 0.2 0.56 0.57 0.18  
BPA % Δ/IQR −0.28 (−6.99, 6.91) 0.00 (− 1.36, 1.36) 2.10 (0.22, 3.99) 0.69 (−1.13, 2.51) 1.46 (−2.23, 3.52)  
p 0.94 1 0.03** 0.46 0.19  
BPFb % Δ/IQR 7.29 (−4.59, 20.64) 2.76 (0.29, 5.22) a −1.22 (− 4.34, 1.90) 1.84 (−1.37, 5.04) −2.50 (−6.47, 1.47)  
p 0.24 0.03** 0.45 0.26 0.22  
BPS % Δ/IQR −1.01 (−8.12, 6.66) −0.07 (− 1.6, 1.46) 0.14 (− 1.89, 2.18) 0.04 (− 1.97, 2.05) 0.58 (− 2.47, 2.9)  
p 0.79 0.93 0.89 0.97 0.64  
BP-3 % Δ/IQR −5.89 (−12.87, 1.65) − 0.40 (− 1.85, 1.04) −1.47 (−3.56, 0.63) −1.37 (− 3.35, 0.62) −0.21 (− 5.33, 1.26)  
p 0.13 0.59 0.17 0.18 0.86  
TCC % Δ/IQR −10.12 (− 19.47, 0.32) −0.61 (−2.76, 1.55) 4.08 (1.18, 6.98) − 0.65 (− 3.53, 2.23) 4.67 (− 1.37, 6.65)  
p 0.06* 0.58 0.007** 0.66 0.01**  
TCS % Δ/IQR 0.57 (−7.74, 9.63) −0.74 (−2.45, 0.96) − 1.97 (−4.36, 0.41) −1.60 (−3.9, 0.69) −0.15 (− 2.69, 4.55)  
p 0.9 0.39 0.11 0.17 0.91  
EPBb % Δ/IQR −6.78 (−17.6, 5.46) −0.45 (−2.9, 2.0) −0.76 (−4.10, 2.58) −0.03 (−3.29, 3.24) − 1.68 (−5.66, 2.30)  
p 0.27 0.72 0.66 0.99 0.41  
BPB % Δ/IQR −4.88 (− 12.62, 3.54) 1.10 (−0.54, 2.74) 0.70 (− 1.61, 3.02) 1.74 (−0.49, 3.96) − 1.56 (− 7.01, − 0.26)  
p 0.25 0.19 0.55 0.13 0.24  
MPB % Δ/IQR −6.92 (−13.91, 0.64)a 0.77 (−0.76, 2.29) −0.39 (− 2.53, 1.76) 1.02 (− 1.04, 3.09) −1.78 (−4.64, 1.53)  
p 0.07* 0.33 0.73 0.33 0.15  
PPB % Δ/IQR −6.29 (− 13.6, 1.64) 0.81 (−0.8, 2.42) 0.21 (−2.02, 2.45) 0.65 (− 1.52, 2.81) − 0.67 (− 3.89, 2.63)  
p 0.12 0.32 0.85 0.56 0.6  
  1. 2,4-DCP: 2,4-dichlorophenol; 2,5-DCP: 2,5-dichlorophenol; BP-3: Benzophenone; TCS: Triclosan; TCC: Triclocarban; EPB: ethylparaben; MPB: Methylparaben; BPB: Butylparaben; PPB: Propylparaben
  2. Results converted to % change in hormone per IQR change in biomarker concentration
  3. * represents a p value below 0.10, and **represents a p value below 0.05; a Significant interaction (p < 0.05) between urinary biomarker*visit; b Dichotomous variable
  4. Models adjusted for specific gravity, study visit, body mass index (BMI) at the first study visit, maternal age, the number of hours of second-hand smoking exposure per day, and a socio-economic variable