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Table 3 Association between maternal urine cotinine in early pregnancy and children’s neurodevelopment at 24 months stratified by genetic polymorphism and breastfeeding behavior

From: Exposure to prenatal secondhand smoke and early neurodevelopment: Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study

  Cotinine ≤ 1.90a > 1.90a
n βb 95% C.I. P P interaction d n βb 95% C.I. P P interaction d
MDI GSTM1/GSTT1           
  Any present 241 2.51 (−1.14, 6.16) 0.18 0.25 251 − 1.64 (−4.79, 1.52) 0.31 0.16
  Both null 119 −0.40 (−5.53, 4.74) 0.88 98 −5.78 (−10.69, − 0.87) 0.02
  Breastfeeding only up to 6 months3          
  Yes 135 0.35 (−4.38, 5.09) 0.88 0.38 122 −0.24 (−4.69, 4.20) 0.91 0.22
  No 195 2.31 (−1.94, 6.56) 0.29 188 −3.75 (−7.51, 0.00) 0.05
PDI GSTM1/GSTT1           
  Any present 241 2.45 (−1.07, 5.98) 0.17 0.83 251 −0.42 (−3.35, 2.51) 0.78 0.87
  Both null 119 2.26 (−2.95, 7.46) 0.39 98 −1.25 (−5.64, 3.14) 0.57
  Breastfeeding only up to 6 monthsc          
  Yes 135 −0.70 (−5.86, 4.46) 0.79 0.16 122 0.86 (−3.55, 5.27) 0.70 0.23
  No 195 3.29 (−0.51, 7.09) 0.09 188 −0.70 (−3.96, 2.56) 0.67
  1. amedian of urinary cotinine level = 1.90 (ng/ml)
  2. bGeneral Linear Model adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, gestational age, infant sex, region, breastfeeding behavior, primary caregiver, and creatinine
  3. cGeneral Linear Model adjusted for maternal age, maternal education, gestational age, infant sex, region, primary caregiver, and creatinine
  4. dP-value for interaction
  5. MDI Mental Development Index, PDI Psychomotor Development Index, GSTM1 Glutathione S-transferases mu1, GSTT1: Glutathione S-transferases theta 1