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Table 3 Examples of results of non-radiation environmental epidemiological studies with and without adjusting for exposure estimation errors

From: Methods to account for uncertainties in exposure assessment in studies of environmental exposures

Studies Exposure Outcome Error-correction Method Measures of Association Unadjusted risk effect with 95% confidence interval Adjusted risk effect with 95% confidence interval Percent change after adjustment
Kumar (2016) [48] PM2.5 (μg/m3)* Birth weight (g) SIMEX Linear regression coefficient −1.01 (−2.017, 0.003) −0.98 (−1.689, − 0.263) + 3%
PM10 (μg/m3)** Birth weight (g) SIMEX Linear regression coefficient −1.01 (−2.017, 0.003) −0.98 (−1.689, − 0.263) + 0.1%
Wang and Song (2016) [56] % Energy from protein Breast cancer Regression Calibration Hazard ratio −0.15 (−1.79,1.49) 0.53 (−1.74, 0.72) − 248%
Keogh and White (2014) [39] Log fiber intake (gram/day) Colorectal cancer Regression Calibration Log odds ratio − 0.19 (− 0.33, − 0.06) − 0.29 (− 0.49, − 0.09) −48.2%
Beulens et al. (2007) [65] Alcohol consumption Total myocardial infarction Regression Calibration Hazard ratio 0.85 (0.78, 0.92) 0.68 (0.46, 1.00) −20%
Alcohol consumption Total death Regression Calibration Hazard ratio 0.96 (0.91, 1.02) 0.94 (0.75, 1.18) −2%
Alcohol consumption Total stroke Regression Calibration Hazard ratio 1.03 (0.92, 1.15) 1.04 (0.72, 1.51) + 0.9%
Molina-Montes et al. (2012) [66] Energy-adjusted magnesium intake Pancreatic cancer Regression Calibration Hazard ratio 0.98 (0.86, 1.11) 0.68 (0.46, 1.00) + 2%
Energy-adjusted iron intake Regression Calibration Hazard ratio 0.97 (0.91, 1.03) 0.94 (0.75, 1.18) −4%
Energy-adjusted heme-iron intake Regression Calibration Hazard ratio 1.01 (0.90, 1.12) 1.04 (0.72, 1.51) + 7%
Beydoun et al. (2007) [67] n-3 C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids Cognitive functioning (measured by Word Fluency Test) Regression Calibration Odds ratio 1.01 (0.92, 1.12) 1.22 (0.90, 1.64) + 20.8%
n-3 C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids Cognitive functioning (measured by Word Fluency Test) SIMEX Odds ratio 1.01 (0.92, 1.12) 1.15 (0.96,1.39) + 13.9%
  1. *particulate matter (PM) ≤ 2.5 μm in diameter
  2. **particulate matter (PM) ≤ 10 μm in diameter